Category Archives: Self-Publishing Roundtable

This Book Cannot May Any Money — Editing Phase: When You Have No Resources

This post is a week and a day late, and it turns out I probably could have gotten it out last week, after all.  Ah, well.  On the plus side, the extra day is giving me a chance to make the following announcement:  The signatures have been signed and the contract is now fully executed!  I can now announce that The Merrimack Event will be turned into an audiobook by Tantor Media!  Tantor is a major player in the audiobook world, and I’m looking forward to working with them.  Audiobooks from Tantor will appear in all of the major (and some of the minor) audiobook outlets, including, yes, Audible, iTunes, Hoopla, and others.

But still, sorry about the delay in this post.  I’m trying hard not to let this project interfere with my next novel, which makes finding the time to work on this series a bit difficult at times.  It’s been even harder to manage that with this particular blog (I needed some solid, uninterrupted hours I could work on it for one editorial technique I’m presenting), but I finally managed to find enough time.

Now, if I wanted to talk about editing in general, I’d discuss all sorts of things.  For example, I’d want to cover the differences between developmental editing, copy editing, and proofreading (I did cover that in my Self-Publishing Roundtable).  I’d talk about what to look for in a good editor.  I’d probably talk about style guides, the differences between the Chicago Manual of Style, the AP Stylebook, Words Into Type, and Merriam-Webster’s Guide to Punctuation and Style, and I’d discuss why — if you are self-publishing — you might want to create a house style guide.

But that’s not the case with this series.  This series is covering the worst-case-scenario, the “you have no money, no (useful) friends, no ability to barter for anything, and almost no resources” type of self-publishing.  In this sort of situation, you probably don’t care about the distinctions between those different types of editing, you aren’t going to be employing any editors, and you can’t afford style guides of any variety.  You need to self-edit.

Self-editing is mostly about going back to make things internally consistent.  It’s about making your writing as good as you possibly can on your own.  It’s less about the technical, and more about getting things to flow.  And yet if you do it right, you can produce a product just as good as you can by hiring out the edits… but “doing it right” can be a bit hard to manage.

So, I now have enough content for “This Book Cannot Make Any Money” to declare the “writing” part of this book complete.  If I include the story fragment from the last blog in this series featuring the malfunctioning burger-flipping robot detective with the faux french accent, the book will be somewhere between 40-50k words long… which is VERY short for me, but is a reasonable novel length in some genres (such as certain types of romance novels, pulp westerns, and even some varieties of Mystery novel).  I don’t think I ever came up with a title for that piece, so (as a working title) we’ll call it the “Detective Hummer” story.  Time to edit!

But back up a moment, here. Usually, when writing, instead of stopping mid-story and re-writing, I note issues that I want to “fix” before I let anyone else see it, or things which I want my editor’s opinion on.  In the case of “Detective Hummer,” I had these notes:

  • This story wasn’t started with any form of plot or plan in mind; I started building one as I continued writing.  I need to be sure to check that there are no “plot-breaking” points in the story.  (This turned out to just be a story fragment, however, so that isn’t a problem).
  • Originally, I started describing Hummer to establish the ‘sci-fi’ elements for the story.  A malfunctioning robot working as a burger flipper was just supposed to be a set piece; it wasn’t supposed to become the main character.  I should see if I need to add more details about Hummer (and comparable details to the other burger-flipping bots) so that readers will have enough details to figure out what’s going on.
  • I rushed, a bit, through that scene in the police station.  I need to be sure I included enough elements to explain why Hummer was able to get into Evidence Lock-up without being stopped.  I also need to make sure, in a scene that by necessity had very little dialog, that there are enough details and things so you don’t violate the (often over-applied, but there is a kernel of wisdom in the saying) principle of “Show, don’t tell.”

Now, there are undoubtedly more issues than that, but those were the ones I remember coming up as I was writing.  Ideally, I write these down, and then set the story aside for a couple months so it goes “cold” for me.

But I don’t have that luxury with this piece — this is a demonstration piece, so I need to have this story fragment ready to go by the time my blog on Book Design comes out in a few weeks.  Rushing through edits only gives you bad editing, so I need to start editing NOW!

All right, time to check the editing budget.  I need to hire a good editor who works fast!  *glances at the budget*  Oh, right.  The budget is US$0.00.  Uh…

Well, that’s okay.  I’ve been able to negotiate a trade of services for editing, before (babysitting for editing in a couple cases; I nearly traded one of my mother’s quilts in exchange for a line edit of a book, once).  No problem!  Oh, wait, that takes a while to negotiate, and we’ve just established I don’t have any time.

Well, they’re never as good as a human editor, but there are some pieces of editing software like Hemingway… oh, wait, that costs money.   There’s Grammarly, too, and there’s a free version… that doesn’t include any of the elements that might make it more effective that LibreOffice’s native spelling and grammar checker.  To get the effective parts of that software, you need to pay for the premium version, and in the budget, we have… (checking again) $0.  *sigh*

Well, what about replacing the editor with a team of quality beta readers?  I know a number of successful writers who do that!  *checks rules of this blog series*  Oh, sigh.  I have to pretend I don’t have any friends or family who have any experience in this whole “writing” process, which eliminates the pool of people from whom I’d get beta readers.  *sigh*

Okay, pure self-editing it is!

Several years ago, I wanted to build my own houseboat, hoping I could use it as a writing getaway (I never finished this project, mind you, so don’t ask for pictures).  I recall reading a chapter in one boat-building book that was talking about boat motors.  It went into all of these details about what the ideal boat motor was (which included general advice like, look for a motor built in the 1980s or earlier, because the boat motors manufactured today aren’t built with proper marine-grade materials… or something like that).  At the end of the chapter, however, it started talking about options for if you COULDN’T find an appropriate boat motor.  It ended by saying (paraphrasing, because I don’t have access to that book now) that if necessary, there were ways to modify most lawnmower engines so that they could work as trawler motors.  While he didn’t recommend it, the author felt the need to tell you how to use this option because it was better to use a lawnmower-converted into-a-trawler-motor than to not build your boat for lack of a motor.

In that spirit, I DO NOT RECOMMEND pure self-editing.  It is the worst possible option that I think the self-publisher can take when it comes to editing… but I’d rather see a good book self-edited than not see the book at all (and self-editing is better than no editing).  So, I’m going to go through several options, and I would suggest you use several of these techniques if you find yourself stuck self-editing your own work.

Now, the first thing to do is just to re-read the story yourself, keeping those initial thoughts (mentioned above) in mind.  This is FAR better done if you actually have time to let the story get “cold” in your mind, first, but as I said before I don’t have time for that; I started self-editing almost the moment I ended the last blog, and I’m still a couple weeks late.  Still, you can catch some things, especially if you already have in mind what you’re looking for.  You will not catch everything, but you will catch a number of things, and your story fragment (or book, or whatever you’re editing) will be all the better for it.

Now, because people tend to see things different on a screen vs. in print, print out a copy of your story and read it again on paper, making notes on paper you’ll transcribe back to the computer later.  You’ll see things you missed the first read on the computer… (though the computer read could show you things you miss in print, too).  Again, pay special attention to those things you’d already identified as needing work when you were writing it.  You still won’t catch everything, but with each successive pass there will be fewer things you need to fix… (but a caution:  You may introduce new mistakes trying to fix the old if you aren’t careful, so BE CAREFUL).

Next, we’ll try the “reading backwards” method.  This is a technique that may help compensate for not having the time to let the story fragment get “cold.”

Now, you might be surprised to learn the technique does, in fact, work the way it sounds.  Sort of.  But this doesn’t mean you should be reading your sentences backwards, word for word.  If I had to read the whole story as “.hour an than more little in began Burger Bungalow at shift Hummer’s.  system transit public the to back hurry to had it then And” I would not only find no mistakes, I would soon be driving myself crazy.

No, in this case “Reading Backwards” means to read, paragraph by paragraph (some people do it sentence by sentence, but I think that’s a bit extreme), the manuscript in question.  This helps isolate each paragraph, and it reduces the “I meant to write it this way so I see it this way even if its wrong” effect that most self-editors encounter.  Or so I’m told — I’ve never noticed, one way or another, whether it helps with this.

But I do think it can help if you read your story this way, correcting whatever grammatical or typographic errors you find along the way, then think really hard about what the context was needed in order for the paragraph you just read makes sense.  Then scan back a few paragraphs and SEE if that context is there.  Maybe you did write the context down earlier in the story, but if it isn’t in the text recently enough to be fresh in your readers’ minds they are going to get lost, and that needs to be fixed.

Finally, I present two variations of a method for the final copy edit.  Both work the same, but there are slight differences.

The first is reading aloud to yourself.  You are checking both for grammar and flow with this one — if you stumble while reading (at least, if you stumble for reasons that can’t otherwise be explained by a sudden allergy attack, the phone ringing, your water heater exploding, that kind of thing), check to see if something is wrong with either the grammar or the flow and fix it until you can read it without stumbling.

This method catches most errors… if you can read your own work properly.  The problem is that most people (even reading aloud) read what they INTENDED to write, not what they actually wrote.  Letting your writing get cold helps with this, but it doesn’t completely fix it.

Which is why some people try a variant method:  Getting your computer’s pre-installed screen text reader to read it out loud for you (I tried using Narrator, which comes with Windows 2007; a horrid  voice which I can only get to work by copy-pasting the story into a text document, but its (barely) functional.  Most operating systems come with one, but if yours doesn’t there are plenty free versions for download — I haven’t tested them, however).

You will hear your text AS IT IS ACTUALLY WRITTEN, instead of as you intended to write it.  That is immensely valuable, and will make errors stand out dramatically.  When you DO find an error, pause the narrator and make the correction.

It is also time consuming, sometimes hard to understand thanks to the synthetic voice, and easy to lose focus on.  It’s great for short works, but if your book is, say, 150,000 words long (three of my novels have been that long or longer) you’re probably going to have to endure this for DAYS.   The computer narrator is accurate — more accurate than most human readers — but the synthetic monotone delivery will drive you crazy after a while.  Some people can stand it, others will start getting easily distracted, lose focus, or even fall asleep during the reading.

The synthetic monotone delivery has one more drawback, as well:  It will help you find grammatical errors, but it might obscure errors in the flow and tone of your delivery.  So, this method of editing isn’t flawless.

(Note:  It was originally my intention to have a full-on demonstration of the above technique which I’d share on this blog, but setting things up so I could record Windows Narrator reciting the Detective Hummer blog entry — as I’d planned — proved to be technically unfeasible.  Sorry about that; this was supposed to be the centerpiece of this blog post, and was partly why it was delayed until this week, but it just didn’t work).

Ideally, if you want to fully self-edit your work, you would apply a mixture of the above techniques, refining your story each round through.  Not all of these techniques will work for everyone, but a blend of the ones that do work for you will improve your book immensely.

So, how effective is all of this?  Well, I’m not applying all of these methods to this project — I can’t invest the time for it, and I think I can get something good enough using just a few of them.  I think I’ll combine the basic re-read technique with the reading backwards technique (paragraph-length) and, if I can find the time, one of the last two variants (In my attempts to record a sample of the narrator, I caught two minor mistakes, but geez that thing gives me a headache; I’ll probably stick to the self-read aloud version).  Is that enough?  Well, you’ve seen the before with my last blog post.  You’ll be able to judge the after for yourself when I complete all of this.

Before you can do that, though I need to publish this thing, and before that I need to do something about cover art.  Hm… I wonder what the topic of my next blog is supposed to be?

Observations From My First Experience with Kindle Select

We’ll get to a discussion of The Merrimack Event in a moment, but first I have a bit of news:  I must not have embarrassed myself too badly, because Ravencon wants me back.  That makes TWO conventions (both in the same Williamsburg hotel, oddly enough) willing to let a self-published hack (whose newly released book has been in the top-500 for much of this week, and was tagged as  Amazon’s number one hot new release in certain subgenre) appear as a guest speaker.

I haven’t yet requested a reading, book signing, table, or similar opportunity for hand-selling my books at either Ravencon or Marscon.  I’ve certainly considered it, but I haven’t had the technical capabilities nor (consequently) have I bothered to fill out the sales tax forms needed to hand-sell books.

I’m not sure I’ll have everything I need done by either convention, but I recently took the first step towards being able to (legally) hand-sell my books:  I upgraded my (old-fashioned flip-style) cell phone to a new (albeit inexpensive, starting-level) Android-powered Smartphone, with which I should be able to add a credit card reader of some sort (such as Square or Paypal. I want to talk to the bank (specifically, a financial advisor working for my credit union) before I decide on which one, just in case the bank has a special deal with one or another, as some do).  There’s been a bit of a a transition period (my new phone, uh, doesn’t actually work as a phone.  It makes calls okay, and I can hear people just fine, but they can’t hear me beyond a buzzing sound.  The microphone has been tested and works, and tech support says it’s something on their end… but they haven’t figured out what, yet, and they want me to wait “three business days” to see if they can fix it.  If I can get everything working in time (not just the phone, but the card reader and the tax forms), I might approach the conventions and request one of those hand-selling opportunities, after all.

Also, I completed the book block and cover for the print edition and sent them to the printer.  Ordered a proof copy… and got back a minor disaster.  Createspace somehow decided that my cover wasn’t conforming to their standards (even though it was set up to match their stated standards to the pixel) and “adjusted the size” of the text of the spine.  I… well, maybe I’ll let this photo show you just why that seems to be such a problem.

I’ll have to be making corrections for that.  I’ll also be fixing some minor typos in the manuscript of The Merrimack Event that were discovered post-ebook-publication, shortly.  I’ve already had one person e-mail me a set of typos they found, and my mother (heh) found another set.

Those corrections will be uploaded to KDP roughly around the same time I approve of the final print proof, to give myself (and any other fans who want to let me know of anything they find) a chance to discover any other possible issues.  While I try to put out the best quality book I can the first time, the final proof is done by just one person (me) and I do miss things, on occasion, and inevitably will have to issue corrections, so I do appreciate those people who point things out to me even after publication.

Now, for the post I’ve been working on for the past couple weeks:  As I mentioned at the time I first published it, I used the publication of The Merrimack Event as my first exploration of the Kindle Select Program. Now a few weeks in, I have some observations:

  • Reviews do appear to come faster from the book on Kindle Select than they have with any other book I’ve published.  I don’t know if that’s solely from the book itself or from the Select program.
  • For whatever reason, the charts on my KDP dashboard seem to update the “Page Reads” figure (based on the Kindle Edition Normalized Pages, or KENP; how it calculates the size of a KENP, I’m not certain) much faster than the sales figures.  There was one day when I went to bed (after midnight) with thirty-eight sales for the day and 50,757 page reads.  I woke up the next morning, and that day’s totals instead said I had sixty-five sales… and 50,757 page reads.  I noticed that happen more than once, in fact.  Incidentally, Amazon calculates The Merrimack Event as being 737 KENP long.
  • It is possible to increase your sales rank when your sales total drops, thanks to page reads.
  • In Treachery Forged had been my highest-ranking book ever, hitting the top-20 sales ranking in the SciFi-Fantasy categories and the top-2000 in overall Amazon sales ranking.  Strangely, at the time I’m writing this (I’ve been composing this post for weeks, now; I started it well before the post announcing my Marscon invite went up), I’ve overwhelmingly beaten it in the overall Amazon sales ranking (the highest I’ve seen, so far, was around top-500; I’m hoping it gets better before I post), but I’ve yet to even make the top-100 list for the overall SciFi-Fantasy categories.  I did break the top 100 of the Scifi-Fantasy\SciFi subcategory, however.  Probably has nothing to do with KDP Select, but worth noting.
  • In Treachery Forged sold about the same number of copies per day, if not more, at a top-2000 sales ranking (it’s first month’s release) as The Merrimack Event has at a top-500… but I’m guessing The Merrimack Event topped it thanks to page reads.  So if you were wondering if page reads factor into the rankings, it appears they do.
  • Speaking of In Treachery Forged, the success of The Merrimack Event has helped spark new sales for that and my other books as well.  The boost for my other books hasn’t been NEARLY as large as the boost that In Forgery Divided provided.  The other books are in a different genre (Fantasy vs. Science Fiction, which despite the effort of some people to convince people otherwise ARE different genre with different fanbases, even if those fanbases overlap and co-mingle), so that’s probably the difference.
  • If the page read totals remain high, I may decide to renew my KDP Select for another 90 day period.  Reviewing many of the KDP select horror stories, I intend to minimize my risks by never taking a book OUT of wide distribution to put it into Select, so for me that’ll be a one-way trip.  So, while I still intend to EVENTUALLY send it wide, it won’t be until the page reads drop to the point that sending it wide makes viable economic sense.

And… that’s it, so far.  I’m sure I’ll have more to say on the subject, sooner or later.  In the meantime… my Birthday is this Wednesday (September 20th), and adding a little signal boost pushing for more sales and reviews of any or all of my books would be a really good birthday present.

Edit:  Spammers are very aggressively moving back through my blog to try and hit the comments section.  Closing this one to new comments, too… (will they keep going back until they hit the posts that the software auto-closes comments on, I wonder?)

So, About that Merrimack Event Cover Art…

I wasn’t planning to do a blog this week, but some news came in that I had to share…

As I said in my last blog (and have talked about on Facebook a time or three over the past couple weeks), I’ve finally found a cover artist for The Merrimack Event. If things go according to plan, the book will FINALLY go out the door once that art is completed. The artist says he’ll get it back to me in August or September, so… soonish?

The artist I hired is not a career cover designer.  Technically, I suppose that applies to all of the artists I’ve hired for covers; even though they’ve all had past experience designing book covers (one of which is on retainer to a small press as their official cover designer), cover design is not their specialty.  In the past, I’ve worked with student artists (for concept designs, not covers), webcomic artists, and an illustrator, but none of them have primarily worked in cover art.  This guy follows that trend, it seems.

So, if you want to be technical, the artist I hired isn’t a cover artist.  But let me tell you what he is:

He started his artistic career at age 20, doing concept art for the Heroes of Might and Magic franchise.

He has been working for Disney since 1996.

He was named a Corel Painter Master in 2016.

He’s done background art for several video games, including some entries of the Mortal Kombat, Silent Hill, and Baldur’s Gate franchises.

He’s worked extensively on the animated Starship Troopers: Roughnecks series.

Oh, and he’s done some artwork for a small franchise — not sure if you know it — called Star Wars.

Now, I’m not sure if you’ll recognize the name of Joel Christopher Payne right away, and “cover artist” hasn’t yet shown up on that list (though he assures me he has done book covers, before), but I think his resumé is good enough to do the cover for The Merrimack Event.  What do you think?

Indie Author Day

Yesterday (yes, I am writing this post on Sunday; it wasn’t possible to get started sooner with this topic) was the 1st Annual Indie Author Day. If you weren’t aware of it, this was an event organized as a collaboration of multiple public and municipal libraries to celebrate indie authors.

Not every public library system celebrated, and those that did had differing levels of participation. From the example of my own local library and from some others that authors in my facebook feed promoted, the program varied a bit but had roughly this program:

1. One or more panels by supposedly independent authors (more on this later).
2. A 2pm live-streamed Video conference to be projected for all attendees (if you’re curious, that conference can be re-watched on Youtube. I thought it was a little dry, myself, and with a bit more self-congratulatory back-patting than I prefer, but there were a few points made that some of you might be interested in)
3. A meet-and-greet of local authors (well, at least those who attended.  Every other local author I knew of didn’t go, and I knew nothing of the ones who did show up.  But it was probably the highlight of the thing, as it allowed indie authors to get to know their fellow indie authors).

This was an event that some libraries did better than others.  Chris Kennedy’s report of the Virginia Beach Library’s program seemed to run so much better than my own (in the Loudoun County Public Library system.  While I am going to be a critical of the program in this blog, however, I am giving them big kudos for having the event at all; several library systems didn’t bother), with more programming:  Virginia Beach had three panels of authors, several of whose names I recognized, against Loudoun County’s single panel, none of whose names I knew.

Also, the Loudoun County meet-and-greet session was mixed in with demonstrations of their Espresso Book Machine; I’m all for them pushing that (these could be good tools for supplemental self-publishing POD distribution, as I mentioned once or twice in my Self-Publishing Roundtable, but more of the machines need to be installed nationwide before they become much more effective than a curiousity), but it should have been at a seperate time (perhaps an hour earlier, leading into the rest of the event).

I also could have wished for better guests for the “Indie Writer” panel.  It wasn’t that the people who were there didn’t belong (well, some of them belonged; I question whether the corporate consultant with no connection to the publishing industry who “self-published” his business book on corporate consulting back more than a decade ago, mostly as promotional material for his business, and who used a vanity press to do it, really qualified as an “Indie Writer”), but… well, there were no headliners. There were no people especially experienced with most of the challenges of independent publishing of fiction (one short fiction writer who mostly wrote for anthologies, one person whose books were originally published with a small press publisher that has since gone defunct, one self-published textbook writer (whose dully-delivered advice consisted, from what I remember of it, of discussing the difficulties of dealing with peer review as an indie.  If you’re writing textbooks, that would be very good advice, but most writers, especially most indie writers, don’t have to deal with that), and the final panelist was the aforementioned vanity-press-published business writer).  These guests all had something to contribute to a panel on one aspect of indie writing or another, but all of them really had limited knowledge on the subject.  No-one really knew indie publishing.

This was an event intended for indie authors and aspiring indie authors.  The aspirants may have heard something new, but the panel spent most of its time dispensing advice which most writers (even most of the aspirants) would have heard a million times before.  It would have been nice if the panel discussing indie publishing and writing had someone with recent experience publishing and writing indie books.

And the panel went on far longer than it should have.  Technical flaws prevented the librarians from connecting with the live video (they had the computer projected on the screen, so I was able to witness the error and all the things they tried to fix it.  All they really needed to do was refresh the web browser, but these librarians, having tried repeatedly to ensure the laptop was plugged in to the power strip, eventually decided that the only way to fix the problem was to replace the lapstop with a different one.  I’m still not sure what they were hoping would happen by replacing the power cords).  Then the librarians got bored and decided to shut the video-conference down and move on to the meet-and-greet session, which I’ve already mentioned was itself interrupted by the Espresso Book Machine demonstration.

So… the event was a little disappointing, technically flawed, and had other issues I won’t go into here (for example, they had a table of cookies as “refreshments.”  Some of these cookies were bone dry, almost dessicating the mouth of those who ate it, and the library offered nothing to drink with them.  You had to go out of the programming room and  into the hall and find a water fountain to wash them down).

And yet I applaud our library for at least trying.  So many public libraries look down on indie writers, and others refuse to do anything to support their local writers.  Ours… well, they don’t know what they’re doing, but at least they and the other two hundred Indie Author Day participating library systems are TRYING to reach out to and support the local writing community.  That’s what libraries should do.  And, if the local writing scene supports it, the librarians at the library will learn what it takes to make an event like this successful.  If there’s interest, they will add more programming, put more effort into the scheduling, and learn better what kind of panelists would interest other writers.

So, if you were at an Indie Author Day event yesterday, or knew of one taking place at your local library, great!  Let your librarians know you were glad they held it, and offer suggestions for what you want to see at such an event in the future.  Ask them to request certain guests in the future, if you know someone (local; they aren’t likely to make much effort reaching out to someone who isn’t already part of the community) who would be good for the panel.  Encourage them to expand the program, either in terms of hours or in terms of more support for Indie Authors (or both, if you think you can pull it off).

If you weren’t, try to find out if your library did participate.  If they didn’t, ask them to look into joining in the event next year.  Show interest in getting your library to support local writers and indies.  If enough people show interest, even the most anti-indie of librarians will eventually (if grudgingly) start doing something for indie authors.

It’s worth the effort.  Libraries can be a great resource for a writer, both in researching for your next book and marketing your existing ones, and events like this would be a great way to connect with them.

Lessons Learned From Ravencon

As I mentioned a couple weeks ago, here is everything (new) I learned from the panels and workshops at Ravencon. Before we begin, however, a little bit about how I’m going to do this:

Some of the “lessons learned” weren’t in things anyone said, but were more conclusions drawn by putting a little of what person A said, a little of what person B said, and my own experiences together, which might make it hard to properly attribute.  Besides, I didn’t properly attribute everything in my notes (hey, I couldn’t even remember who some of the speakers WERE without a program book, and I would have lost valuable information looking them up). So… sorry, but I’m not going to identify just which panel or panelist inspired these “lessons.”  Still, I’d recommend reading my Ravencon Recap to get a list of the panelists from whom these lessons were derived.

I.  On Marketing

A lot of the things that I heard from this convention on marketing were things I already knew, but maybe haven’t thought to mention on this blog before.

For example, an emphasis was made on doing things in what I would call the “set-up phase” of getting your eBook ready.  By this I mean things like making sure you add the right keywords to get in the most categories on Amazon and making sure you set up your Author Central page on Amazon (the guest who said this pointed out that he’d checked the author pages for the guests at Ravencon, and roughly two thirds of the authors attending had never filled out this page.  This is something to do even if you’re trad-pubbed, guys!).

One thing I did not know about this involved the keywords.  I knew you could get your ebook into more Amazon categories with the right keywords in the KDP set-up process, but I didn’t know that worked with Createspace as well, and you could use the keywords with your Createspace books to get you into even more categories.

I also didn’t know how many categories you could get a single book into — one of the panelists pointed out that he had his book in over fifteen different categories on Amazon.

I will note that the panelist who gave this example said the keywords you need to get into specific niche categories were listed on Amazon, but I don’t think that’s a complete listing — at any rate, I’m still not sure what specific keyword got The Kitsune Stratagem into the Science Fiction & Fantasy > Fantasy > Myths & Legends > Asian category.

Another phrase I heard that I already knew (and recent experience says is pretty true) is that the best marketing you can do for Book I is to release Book II.  Now, I also know it’s kind of hard to do that if you haven’t written Book II, yet, so I was hoping for a little more advice on what to do in the interim.

Several panelists emphasized keeping up with your social media — your Facebook feed, your Twitter page, your home page, your blog (heh).  You need to be sure to not just spam your followers with “Buy my book!” type posts, but rather try to engage them with interesting posts on whatever subject matter you can — politics, cats, the paranormal, etc., and anything else that might interest the people you’re marketing to.

Blogging about writing and publishing isn’t enough (again, something I knew, but I couldn’t think of what else to focus this blog around), because then you’re marketing to other writers.  I came to the conclusion I’m just too boring for social media marketing, as most of the posts I have are either on writing or are “buy my book” type posts.  I don’t want to talk about politics, I have no interest in the paranormal, and I don’t have any cats.  And even if I did have cats, I’m too lousy of a photography to take funny pictures of them, as my pictures from the first Ravencon recap likely demonstrate.  What can you do?  I apologize to my fans for boring you all.  Sorry.

Several panelists discussed the boost (or lack thereof) in sales that giving your book away or offering some books for free can give you.  A lot of things were said, but I think the point that newer authors shouldn’t go this route (it’s entirely ineffective if you don’t have much of anything for people who liked the free book to buy when they’re done) is a good one.  On the other hand, if you have a long series, making the first book free can help… though even this is of limited worth, especially considering how long a series has been out.

One suggestion regarding the free book path that I thought made a lot of sense, though, is — instead of making the first book free — you release an entirely new prequel book that you make free, with the hope the readers of that book will move on to the completed series.  That way, you get both the “new release” buzz and the “free book” buzz.

I also heard a call for joining professional organizations, because they can offer networking opportunities and marketing opportunities you just won’t find anywhere else.  Also, for some of these organizations, being eligible to join is proof you can show to the outside world that you’ve sold a certain number of books.

I’m a bit dubious of joining the SFWA, though if I did join one it would be that one.  Once they opened the doors to self-publishers who could demonstrate certain sales figures, I was eligible through the sales of “In Treachery Forged” (and In Forgery Divided, while selling at a rate a little slower than its predecessor, should cross that same threshold this month, barring a very sudden and dramatic decline in the sales).

I’m still thinking about it.  While I’m dubious about whether such an organization has any value to self-publishers, outside of the “proof my books sell” label, there were a few pilot programs mentioned that sound like they might be useful.  Things like a program to help people who use crowdfunding platforms when launching their books.

If any of my readers are current SFWA members, contact me — I have a few questions that the “Ask SFWA” panel didn’t sound willing to answer.

One self-published writer noted that being a guest at a convention was good promotion for their book, as well (something I’ve long suspected, but had no proof of).   She said that sales for her books jumped higher than they ever had, before, once she was announced as a guest at Ravencon.  Well, I’ve started applying to be a guest at several conventions (though, as I said before, I was too late for this year’s Ravencon, or really any 2016 conventions), so hopefully I’ll be able to tell you how true this is soon.

There was some talk about “swag.”  In this case, swag refers to bookmarks, postcards, and that kind of thing, which can be given away at conventions (like Ravencon) and bookstores as promotional material.  Now I’ve heard from other sources that bookmarks and postcards are increasingly useless, with so many authors trying to be discovered using them that they appear to be nothing more than litter.

However, some forms of re-usable swag (t-shirts, tote bags, tumblers, that sort of thing) can still be good advertising, if done right — giving them away for free (or even charging for them, if you can find buyers) may target only one customer, but then everyone who wears those T-shirts or carries those tote bags displays the logo, website address, book cover, etc., just like a billboard.

Providing enough free t-shirts or tote bags for an entire convention would get pretty expensive (Ravencon requires a minimum of 600 copies of an item to include it in their swag bag.  At $14.14 per t-shirt (drawn from the bulk pricing estimate at Cafepress; you might find it cheaper elsewhere, but it’s a good enough number for this estimate) that’s well over $8000), but having a few made to give away at an event like a book signing, or offering some branded gear for sale on your website, can be worth a little expense.  (Whether you make back your money from that level of advertising is another question, but it does work)

Another interesting piece of “swag” was a small excerpt, eleven pages long, of J.T. Bock’s The Grandfather Paradox.  It’s something that might have been made by your local Kinko’s or UPS Store, or even by the author herself using a laser printer and a long-arm stapler.  The last page of this chapbook has the text “Find out what happens next!  Get a FREE ebook of A Grandfather Paradox short story.  Go to and sign up for the ezine.”  I don’t know how many sales this has generated for the author, but this is something that someone would be far more likely to pay attention to than a simple bookmark, and if you can keep the costs down by DIYing it, you might find it cheaper than purchasing a set of bookmarks.

Another thing that was discussed was cross-promotion.  By this, I mean having several authors work jointly to market their books to each others fanbases.  In my earlier Self-Publishing Roundtable post on marketing, I did discuss the theory of this type of promotion as one of the more effective (in concept, at least).  In that article, I mostly was considering the idea of anthologies, but that was the limit to what I really thought of.  At Ravencon, the idea of sharing your backmatter advertising space with other indie authors (some above you in the genre rankings, others below you, all providing quid-pro-quo for the other authors) was proposed.  It sounds intriguing enough I might just try it, next time.

Finally, there were several mentions of getting reviews out for your book.  Enough points were raised it deserves a topic of its own.

II.  On Reviews

“The hardest thing to do in publishing is getting people to review.”  (Since that’s a direct quote, I’ll note that it was Chris Kennedy who said that line).  In my experience, this is true — in terms of “natural” (unsolicited) reviews, it seems less than 0.75% of the people who purchase my books review them (it used to be 1%, but the older my books have gotten the smaller that percentage has become).  When it comes to solicited reviews, I gave away signed several signed print copies of The Kitsune Stratagem in exchange for a promise that the people getting them would give me a honest review in exchange.  Less than 25% of the people who took this offer actually provided a review of any kind.

So, I went to the conference hunting for suggestions on how to get more customer reviews.  I’m not so sure I heard anything I hadn’t tried, before (at least, not that I currently have the connections and\or other resources to try) but I did hear a few other things about reviews which either add to or contradict what I’ve heard before.

To begin with, I heard that the fantasy genre (which all of my currently published books are in) is one of the hardest to get reviews in.  I didn’t hear any explanation as to why that might be, but it seems to agree with the reality I’ve heard from authors in other genre.

Fortunately, reviews aren’t quite as important as I originally believed.  Amazon’s algorithms (Amazon has several algorithms that help an author sell something; some are used to determine sales rank, others to determine your book’s also-bot mentions, others are used to determine how much free promotion they provide, others are used to determine where your book appears in Amazon’s search engine relative to other books with a similar title… and there are probably others as well) are not as reliant on the number of reviews as much as they are by how they’re weighted.  Reviews are weighted based on how many people vote a review as being useful (or not useful), how old the review is, whether a review comes from a verified purchaser or not, and so forth.

In other words, even if you don’t write reviews, it can help support the writer to click “this review is helpful” on positive reviews.

Where the number of reviews is still important is in getting into promotional websites.  Bookbub (while it doesn’t say so on its website) and Pixel of Ink, generally regarded as the two most effective promotional websites, won’t accept your book for promotion until you get at least 20 reviews.   Ereadernewstoday has a minimum of 10.   Book Blast requires 5.  These are but a few examples where the quantity is more important than the quality of the reviews you get.

While the discussion did not come up at Ravencon, a few things said by the panelists have me looking more into the value of editorial reviews.  Editorial reviews do not get submitted to Amazon in the same way as customer reviews; they are solicited, and even “best practice” includes a fee for the service (paid for either by the author, in self-publishing, or the publisher, for some trad-pub.  I’ve heard that the prices are cheaper for trad-pub, but I can’t be sure about that).  These are the sorts of reviews journals that libraries and other bookstores look at when deciding whether to buy your book. You pay them, they write a review, and you can include a quote or two in a special section (at Amazon’s Author Central, they have a section for entering these called, curiously enough, “Editorial Reviews.”  This section is even open for trad-pub authors to add such reviews.)

Createspace offers one such editorial review service, itself, but it’s far too expensive (Kirkus; as I once mentioned in a past blog post, this is a once quite reputable review journal that went bankrupt and was bought out, and now makes its money by gouging authors for such reviews, though they do seem to be maintaining their good reputation when they deal with trad-pub).  There may be better such services, however; after hearing a few writers talk about this, I’m thinking of experimenting with one or two I know of.  If I do (still a big if), I’ll get back to you on how effective they seem to be.

III.  Story Ideas

Of course, there was more to the convention than lessons for self-publishing.

I’ve decided I need a mascot.  Too many authors have started carrying around there own mascots (dragons, treecats, buffalitos, etc.), and I have too many potential mascots in my own books (foxes, dragons, and other creatures) to ignore this trend.

An intriguing discussion of “sciences not used in science fiction” (which was really “well, everything has been done at least once, but these are far less common sciences featured in science fiction”) gave me an idea for an anthology or collection of stories featuring, well, sciences not commonly featured in the harder forms of science fiction.  Library sciences, linguistics, historians, anthropologists, geologists, meteorologists (in a non-climatological sense; there’s been a recent spate of “Cli-Fi” (Climatologically-messaged science fiction) which has become more common, but other aspects of a meteorologist’s job are still largely ignored), etc.

A tip for con-goers:  Even if you plan to do all of your dining in the hotel restaurant, bring along at least one meal you can safely store in your room that’s grab-and-go.  Even if it’s just the fixings for a peanut butter and jelly sandwich.  That way, if you get talked into going to a panel that takes over the window of time you scheduled for yourself to get your dinner, you’re less likely to miss another panel you want to attend to make up for it.  I usually bring drinks and snacks, but I REALLY could have used a sandwich that Saturday night.

And I’ll conclude with one more tip for the con-goer:  If you’re going to take notes on the panels you attend, it’s so much easier to keep them on your laptop than to try and type them on your iPod or tablet device.  And those notes can be really helpful when you’re trying to write your blog on the lessons you learned at the convention.  And it’s really a good idea to remember to take that laptop with you… even on the first day of the convention.  (Oops)

On Reviews…

I had a blog prepared for today, but I decided to bump it to next week. Instead, something came up this weekend I want to discuss (and no, I’m not referring to the horrific events in Paris right now — that’s not the sort of thing I talk about on this blog): Reviews.

There are two types of reviews.  Well, actually, there’s more than that, but I really only want to talk about two different kinds of reviews:  Editorial reviews and customer (or “reader”) reviews.  Editorial reviews, for the purposes of this blog, are reviews produced by professional reviewers (such as the New York Times Book Review).  These sometimes have to be solicited (you might even need to pay for them, and in this case it isn’t bad practice).  Reader reviews are produced by your customers, and should always be done for free (there are disreputable outfits who will sell you these kinds of reviews; Amazon has started filing lawsuits against these people.  For the record, it is NOT considered bad practice to give a free copy of your book away in exchange for a review of either type).

As a writer, you desperately, desperately want reviews — especially, when dealing with Amazon, reader reviews.  Reviews are your best source of “word-of-mouth” marketing, which is the most effective type of marketing for any writer.  Amazon is also known to provide you with some free marketing (in the form of “also-bought” recommendations, some e-mail promotions, and the like) once you reach a certain number of reviews, and more free marketing still if you can reach that number within the first month of publication.

But you should never respond to those reviews — it is considered unprofessional, in most cases (and yes, this is an unfair situation where one or more reviewers can abuse, sometimes even libel an author.  It is still considered unprofessional to respond).  Even esteemed writers have gotten themselves in trouble by replying to negative reviews.

In fact, it might be worth it to ignore your reviews completely.  Now, this can be hard (I’ve known several authors say “You should never read your reviews.  And if you can figure out how to do this, let me know too, will you?”), but it will probably do you a lot of good.

Some writers think that their reviews will provide them with wonderful insight into what their readers think, tons of constructive criticism, and hopefully even some encouraging words.  Now, the encouraging words is entirely possible, but the rest of it…

Yes, if you have a lot of people bringing up the same problem, you might be able to pinpoint a detail or two that can be fixed.  But… reviewers don’t necessarily agree on what the good and bad points of your writing are.  A few of your most vocal readers could be drawn to your writing through Aspect A, but vehemently dislike Aspect B.  Aspect B might also be the favorite thing that the silent majority of your readers enjoy.

Even professional reviewers won’t agree.  Now, I’m going to use an example from an entirely different artistic medium (in this case, quilting), because it’s partly what inspired this post, but it applies to editorial reviews, too.

My mother entered a quilt into the Houston International Quilt Festival.  This is a judged competition, and is sometimes compared to the Academy Awards for the competitive show quilt world.  The judges in these quilt festivals, in this case a team of three, are quite similar to those professional editorial reviewers in the writing world.  As I interpret the judges comments, and she mentioned on her own blog, the judges for her quilt thought it:

  1.   Was a good use of color.
  2.   Was a bad use of color.
  3.   Looked a lot like an illuminated manuscript, as set by an appropriate border.
  4.   Had a border that overwhelmed and detracted from the central figure.
  5.   Integrated the expected design elements well.
  6.   Integrated the expected design elements poorly.
  7.   Had a pleasing overall appearance.
  8.   Did not have a pleasing overall appearance.

Etc., etc., etc.  You get the idea, right?  These are trained, professional “reviewers” of quilts.  There are far more objective (or at least somewhat objective) elements for these “reviewers” to consider than what most reviewers of writing bother to consider.  And yet they are completely and totally contradictory from one another.

This is also why, as a writer, you don’t always have to agree with everything your editors tell you.  Editors are professionals, but they are not infallible.  You should at least consider everything they say critically.  Usually, what they tell you is something that needs to be fixed.  Sometimes they can point out a problem, but you might want to use a different solution than they provide.  Sometimes, however, your editor might be trying to fix a problem that isn’t there, though, and the solution is worse than your original text.

Editors at least make an effort to be objective in their edits.  Reviewers, however, aren’t reviewing your work to fix your problems like an editor is — they are giving you their entirely subjective view on what they liked and what they didn’t.  And everyone has different opinions about what they like and what they don’t, so it’s not worth it to try and pander to them all.  It’s a bit of a cliché to say it, but you need to write to please yourself.

You might want to have someone else read those reviews for you, though.  You write to please yourself, but you publish (or enter quilt shows, or sell your artwork, or whatnot) to make money.  If the majority of your readers have a problem with a certain aspect of your writing, give that issue a critical eye.  It might be something you’re determined to do, regardless, but if not it just might be worth it to address that issue in your future writing.

Edit:  Spammers are forcing me to close these comments for a while.  If you would like me to re-open them, please let me know.

Self-Publishing Roundtable Addendum I


I have been very busy working on In Forgery Divided this week (the sequel to In Treachery Forged). Because of that, I haven’t had as much time as I usually do to work on my blog. The blog I was planning for this week (Weird Research Part 5) is half-finished, but it doesn’t look as if I’ll get it done in time for my usual Sunday post.  Not because it is especially long, but because it requires I replicate some of my old research in order to complete it, and I just haven’t had time for that.

But I will not go content-less this week. I thought I might lay out some “quick-hits” addendums to my Self-Publishing Roundtable series.


I look through a lot of blogs on writing and self-publishing. Some I give more attention than others, but even some of the less-relevant to my needs blogs have useful information from time to time.

Such is the case with Aaron Shepard’s Publishing Blog.  By the time I discovered his blog, he no longer felt as if he was an “authority” on self-publishing.  With the words “The Party’s Over,” he effectively went into semi-retirement as a self-publishing guru, and a lot of his articles have been left aging and out-of-date.

He does still publish the occasional blog post, however (mostly on things like the paper quality of Createspace vs. Ingram POD books, if you’re interested), and every now and then he has new news to share.

Last week, he pointed out something I was unaware of:  That the “virtual proof” you can get for your Kindle eBooks from Amazon’s Kindle Previewer no longer resemble the final version of the ebook your readers buy.  This is apparently because of Kindle’s still-in-progress attempts to improve typographic features for their .kf8 proprietary ebook file standard.  (keep in mind that, as far as 99.999% of writers are concerned, it doesn’t matter what the file standard it.  It just matters what the book looks like in the end.  Some book designers might have issues with it, however, and sometimes as a self-publisher you need to handle both jobs).

What this means is that — at least for the moment — you should probably buy at least one copy of your own eBook after release, just to double-check and make sure things look the way you intended them do.  I suspect it won’t make a noticable change for most of you, but there’s always the chance of something going wonky.


There are a few issues in self-publishing which rise up on occasion.  Some of these are bred by controversy, and I tend to avoid saying much on those topics (I usually have an opinion, but I rarely feel strongly enough — or well-informed enough — to get into an argument over these topics), but there are other topics which very well might be “trend by coincidence.”

For example, I saw, over the course of two weeks, five or six articles on font selection.  I doubt this was a co-ordinated effort by this blogs, but by happenstance a trend was developing among self-publishing blogs.  So, I guess I’ll follow suit.

Keep in mind — it generally isn’t advisable to use a specific font in eBooks; you might (as I do) use something a touch fancy as a title font (the font used on your title page, chapter headers, etc.; this can be, and frequently is, identical to the font used on your front cover), but otherwise leave fonts alone for your eBooks.

If you are designing your own print books, however, you’re going to need to pay attention to your font choice.  In print, for the interior of your book, you probably want a serif font rather than a san-serif because it’s easier on the eyes (this is reversed on an electronic screen, though probably not an eInk eReader).  And you don’t want the font choice to distract your reader by being too fancy, too stylistic, or too, well…

Book designers, in particular, have issue with certain fonts such as Times New Roman because they are “boring” (or rather, because they make the interior of your book look like it was printed on your home computer on default settings).  They think these styles are so boring that they can throw the reader out of the story.  I’m not sure how much stock I put into these pronouncements, but I do agree there are fonts that look more stylized than TNR without breeching that “too fancy” line.

When picking a font for the inside of your book, you should ensure you’ve picked something that displays all of your punctuation correctly.  It can be a particular issue if you’re using a more obscure font; some fonts were designed for “Display” or for particular specific uses, and any unneeded punctuation (like, say, an apostrophe) simply was never designed for it.  And some fonts have a complete set of punctuation marks that look quite nice… until you see, for example, an em-dash placed next to a curvy letter like b, p, u, g, etc.  (I know that specific one because it is a known issue with the print edition of “In Treachery Forged.”  For some reason, the kerning — the space between letters — looks far too wide with the font I chose)

You also want to make sure you have the right to use these fonts you choose commercially.  Don’t trust that, just because you can pick it in the font selector of your computer, you can just use any old font.  Most fonts are copywritten, and some have very peculiar restrictions for their use.  I like using nice, free fonts without commercial restrictions, such as Alegreya, which can be found on Fontsquirrel.  There are some fonts that come with software, however, and you are still permitted to use some of them… but you had better check before you do.  There are some fonts that come with Microsoft Word, for example, that you are not allowed to use on commercial projects.

Beyond that, I don’t really have much advice.  Just use stuff that you think looks professional — don’t do something “fun” and use Comic Sans or a similar font in your interior because “it makes the book look handwritten.”  Maybe it does make your book look handwritten… but it also makes it hard to read, and that discourages your customers from wanting to finish your book.

Try and get it right the first time, though.  Changing a font after the proof has come out can be very daunting — if you change the font you change the font size; changing the font size means you’ll have to re-do all of those corrections you made for justification, widows and orphans, etc.; re-doing all of those corrections will change the page count; changing the page count changes the thickness of your book spine.  Basically, after a certain point, if you change the font you have to completely re-design your book.


I see people in this scenario a lot:

They do a search for their own book.   Surprise, surprise, they find a copy of their print book for sale on eBay… but they have yet to sell a single print copy, so how can it possible be offered on eBay?

Well, the thing to remember is that your book is Print-on-Demand, and that many legitimate small-business book dealers use eBay as their storefront.

If your book is made available on expanded distribution, any dealer can buy the book for resale.  Some dealers will list books they don’t yet have on eBay, knowing that they can buy those books on-demand, if someone orders it from them.  It is only after someone buys the book from them that your book would be sold to them.

So, if you see your book listed on eBay even though it hasn’t been sold, no, it doesn’t mean that the seller is “ripping you off” and should be reported to eBay for fraud.  Most likely, they’re trying to sell your book for you, and you should be thanking them.


I’m very busy with In Forgery Divided, but I have a plan to continue the Self-Publishing Roundtable once that’s out the door.

On Facebook (and in a few other spots) I’ve talked about an anthology (or rather, in this case, a compilation; the difference is the number of authors involved) entitled “This Book Cannot Make Any Money.”  It would consist of various things (poetry, experimental fiction, an inside joke, story fragments, etc.) that were too small to sell on their own, too wierd to sell on their own, too incomplete (and never-to-be-completed) to sell on their own, or some combination of the above.  In other words, it’s a compilation of a bunch of things that will never make any money (as the title says).

What I was thinking I might do (extreme emphasis on the ‘might’) is compile that book, and make a set of blogs dovetailing off of both this Self-Publishing Roundtable Series and my still-to-be-debuted Writing Software Review Series.  I would blog the entire process of going from “I’m done writing; time to find an editor” to “Ebook and Print Book Both Published, Copywritten, and the First Month of ‘Marketing’ Complete” completing this project with zero budget and in my “off hours.”

The idea would be I’d walk people through the process.  I would also try building the same book multiple times (using different software; I’d build the eBook once with Scriveners, once with Sigil, maybe even once with Jutoh or similar paid-for software (again, if you want me to buy Jutoh to review it, I need AT LEAST ONE COMMENT asking about it).  Then I’ll build the print book in Adobe InDesign (CS6), Microsoft Publisher (2007), and Scribus (1.4.5).  Then I’d walk through the process of setting prices, assigning ISBNs, and publishing through Amazon, Nook, Smashwords, Kobo, Draft2Digital, Apple, various niche stores, etc.

Again, this is a very tentative plan.  It will go very, very slowly, because I’ll be trying to manage it around the writing, publishing, and marketing work I’m doing that I hope can make some money.


Well, this is the first “unplanned” update for the Self-Publishing Review.  There’ll probably be others in addition to item #4, above… but not for a while.  Expect another Weird Research post next week.


Edit:  Comments on this post have been disabled because of spammers; contact me if you’re a real person and want me to re-open comments.

Marketing: Well, We Know What DOESN’T Work (Self-Publishing Roundtable (6/6)

(As a reminder, this is the sixth (and final?) part of the series discussed here.  This series was originally concieved to be part of a roundtable discussion, so don’t be afraid to comment, disagree, offer new suggestions, etc.)


This is being posted in draft form.  It has not been edited (I’m still catching up on editing the past posts, but that meant I didn’t get a chance to go through this one).  I hope to get to it over the course of the next week, but I am a little further behind than I’d like.

Unlike the other article edits, there may be substantive changes when this article is revised.  I am ALWAYS learning new things about marketing, and I’ll probably be thinking of new things I “already knew” to add to this article, as well.  So, even after it’s edited, don’t be surprised if I revisit this topic, again, on a later date.


I will start by saying that I really don’t know what works, in marketing.  If I did, I’d probably have multiple bestselling novels by now.  That doesn’t mean I’m completely clueless, however.

I know many things that don’t work.  And I know a few things that sometimes work.  I know some things that used to work pretty well but don’t any more.  I even know a few things that almost always work, but only to a point.  But no-one, and I do mean no-one, knows something that will always work, for everyone, unconditionally.

So, in this post I’ll tell you what I know might work, what I know doesn’t work, and what I really, really would like to try and see if it works, and maybe that will help those of you trying to come up with marketing plans of your own.


Word of mouth is unquestionably the best form of marketing.  It sells more than anything else — if you have someone recommend your book to someone else who trusts their tastes, that’s a guaranteed sale.  Have a dozen people do it, that’s a dozen sales… plus a few from the people who those dozen have told, plus a few more after that.  Find a thousand people enthusiastically mention your book to their friends, your book should be more than successfully launched.

But there is no way for an author to induce word-of-mouth advertising.  Paid advertising is probably the best type of marketing you can hire… but when it comes to authors, not all advertising works for everyone.  In fact, some of the most effective advertising doesn’t work unless you’ve already had success.

For example, Bookbub only advertises full-length novels (so if you write short fiction, don’t bother with them).  They have few specific requirements, but they are notoriously selective (if you don’t have dozens of excellent reviews already, you’re pretty much out of luck; also, they admit they’re more selective in some genre than others), so debut novels (which need the marketing the most) struggle to get into the store, and many excellent novels can never qualify.

Or you could advertise at a place like The Romance Studio; they are supposed to be pretty effective.  But, uh, given the name, you might struggle if you try advertising your military sci-fi novel there.  Other advertising sites which might be effective are less subtle, but usually are most successful with some genre and not others.  You need to be careful to select an advertiser that actually works for your genre… and even then, it may not be possible to advertise with them.

Of course, advertising (or at least this type of advertising) isn’t the only way to sell your book.  One of the most effective ways of promoting yourself (as an author) is cross-promotion.  Cross-promotion takes many forms:  Guest blogging, being interviewed by another author (hopefully one with his own audience), and joining an anthology writing project.

The idea is that the fans of author A will come and see the blog\interview\anthology with author B, and fans of author B will come and see the blog\interview\anthology of author A.  Bits of the fanbase for each author will join the other fanbase.

And it works… well, most of the time.   There are a few conditions, however:  You need to be sure that the authors involved aren’t “preaching to the choir,” if you were — if the members of the Author A’s fanbase and Author B’s fanbase are too identical (in other words, if most of author B’s fans are already fans of author A and visa versa), then you aren’t likely to be introducing the authors to anyone new.

Also, if none of the people involved have much of a fanbase to share, it won’t be especially effective.  This actually works best when a small-fanbase author can leech publicity from a large-fanbase author (but only for the small-fanbase author), or when two large-fanbase authors work together.  Another way it can work is if the cross-promotion is an anthology project, where you can collect a lot of smaller fanbases together all interested in the same book.  Of course, that only works if you have an “in” with such an anthology.

Conventions also make good marketing for some people.  Being a panelist (like I was supposed to be at Capital Con… before it was cancelled, prompting this series of blogs) or a guest at a convention gives you an opportunity to make new fans; to interact with other authors; to show off your hard work.  I know I’ve bought books from people just because of meeting and talking with them at a convention, and I’m sure I’m not the only one.  However, you need to learn (brace yourself, here) public speaking.  There are a lot of recluses, or people with social disorders, or just complete introverts among the authors of the world; if you can’t overcome that and speak before an audience, it won’t do you any good to appear at a convention.

Also, you need to behave properly — and respectfully.  Remember, you’re probably a small fry at most conventions, at least until you build your reputation up a bit.  Don’t have a diva fit with the convention staff, try not to offend the convention attendees, and try not to make any enemies among the other guests (even if you’ve become a big name who hits the New York Times Bestseller List and are a GoH, there are people at most conventions who have been in the game longer and who have the respect of the others on the convention circuit, even if they don’t have as many sales as you do.  Offend them, you might find yourself having a hard time finding other conventions willing to take you on).

Another way to market your book is, well, “social” implies something else nowadays, so let’s say “engaging the Community.” It doesn’t help, much, to join somewhere new and go “hey, I sold a book,” but there are undoubtedly communities even the most anti-social of us are a part of.  Your friends, your church, your local library staff, the waitress at your favorite restaurant, the people on your favorite sports team’s online forum, etc.

If the goal is word-of-mouth advertising, this is the closest you can come to induce it — the people in the communities you’re involved with, if they read and enjoy your book, are far more likely to recommend it to other than someone who just picks it up casually.  That doesn’t mean the guy who picks up your book off of some random advertisement will never provide any word-of-mouth advertising, just that the likelihood of it happening increases significantly when the person knows you in even the most abstract of ways.

The effectiveness of this, however, is limited by how many of your community acquaintences you can convince to read (and enjoy) your book without annoying that community in general — plastering announcement after announcement about your book does far more to turn people off than it does to get them to read your book, after all, and not everyone in these communities (unless it is “The Military Science Fiction Book Club”) is going to want to read any epic military science fiction novel, much less one of yours.  So, if you make a plug for your book on a 2000-member hockey fansite that you are a long-standing and engaged part of, you might find, oh, a dozen or so people willing to buy your book and read it.  Maybe one of those will even recommend it to someone else.

So, it depends on your engagement level with the community, the size of the community, and that community’s interest level in your genre.  And even then, you have to decide if it’s worth it.  That dozen or so people from the hockey fansite?  Well, a dozen or so people is a good result if all you put into it is the time to briefly announce “Hey, I wrote a book!” in a forum.  But it, to get them to read your book, you have to visit a meeting room in-person and physically hand all of these people free copies, well, you’re putting more time and money into this effort than is worth it.  In other words, it’ll work for some of you (if you use common sense and don’t annoy your acquaintances too much), but it won’t do much, if any, good for others..

It should be apparent, but just in case I should add that your family is not in your community, at least in this regard.  Reviews from family members rarely count among these communities (although you should encourage them to engage their own communities, if you can; I’ve had a little success in this thanks to my mother engaging her fellow quilters).

But, regardless, these sorts of communities are pretty good targets for trying to build that word-of-mouth marketing in… but there is a reason I chose the word “communities” instead of “social groups.”


Those “social groups?”  Well… “social” implies “social media,” and advertising on social media is… well… it may work for some people, but for a lot of writers it’s just a waste of time.

I have seen — and been on — Facebook groups which do nothing but send out book promo after book promo.  Initially, I thought these sorts of groups might garner at least a few sales — they had thousands of members each.  After months (I sometimes have… stubbourness issues) of getting the same book covers in my Facebook feed over and over and over again, at least weekly if not multiple times a day, I came to realize that these groups weren’t working.  They may have thousands of members, but all those members are other authors hoping to plug their own books, and no-one actually joined them looking for new books… or if they did, they probably got so overwhelmed by people flooding the feed that it all becomes a big white noise, and little if nothing ever gets sold from it.

And just as bad as being lost in a crowd is being the only one in the room.  If you are attempting a “promotional discount” and no-one is around to see it, you’re probably not going to gain anything out of the promo.

Promos in places like Amazon and Barnes & Noble can be very effective; there are a lot of people casually browsing the lists on those sites, and if that isn’t enough you can try boosting attention to your discount promotion by bringing in Bookbub or someone like that.  A Bookbub advertisement during an Amazon promotion is known to earn authors hundreds of sales.

But not all bookstores are created the same.  Take, for example, Libiro.  I like Libiro — they are a bookstore fully committed to indies; they’ve built a good author dashboard, they have sales terms that are a little better than Amazon’s, and they make discount promotions just a couple clicks away — no questions (or exclusivity requirements) asked!


Libiro is a very small operation.  While it’s been around a few years, now, it’s still very much in the start-up phase when it comes to attracting a native customer base; I hope it will continue to grow until it becomes a popular place to go looking for books, but it isn’t there yet.  People generally don’t usually go there to browse; they go, for the most part, already there knowing what they’re going to buy.  The very few who browse its virtual shelves probably won’t catch anything that isn’t already one of Libiro’s best sellers or is a new release.

So, suppose you use Libiro’s very simple-to-use tools and set up a half-off sale.  Bookbub and similar advertising sites might very well not know Libiro exists.  There are very few people just browsing that store at any given moment.  That means if you have a promotional discount on Libiro, no-one is going to know about it unless you are the person to tell them.  It won’t grow your customer base (or fanbase, if you prefer) at all; the one thing it might do is get the “fence sitters” within your existing reach to finally buy a copy.

A third option that might work for a few people, but won’t work for most, are Youtube trailers.  If you’re unfamiliar with Youtube trailers, here is an example:

So… I suppose if you were an avid reader of the previous books in the series, this might interest you.  Maybe.  But only if you actually saw the ad….

A Youtube trailer is an interesting concept — sort of like a television ad for your book.  But said youtube trailer suffers the same problem as your book does:  No-one will see it unless you push it, same as with your book.  And you need it to be interesting enough so that if people do see it, they’re willing to buy it (and you have to assume that both the book and you are unfamiliar to the viewer, mind you).  Frankly, you’re better off pushing your book directly than a youtube video.

Of course, it might work for some people.  If they do it right.  If you make a very interesting trailer, and somehow manage to get buzz about it, you might generate sales from it.  Generally, that only works if you are able to get your trailer on a popular youtube channel that your target audience is already a part of… and trust me, a youtube channel that shows nothing but book trailers isn’t going to do it.  No, you want it on a channel that people actually visit and watch… or you want someone that big to link to it.

For the least offensive of all possible examples of how it might work: If you have written a Japanese cookbook, and you somehow manage to get enough of an endorsement from Cooking With Dog (this is a real Youtube channel that deals with Japanese cooking; as far as I know, they don’t endorse cookbooks, nor are they interested in doing so; note that over one million subscribers watch that channel — that number is partly why I picked them) that they will link to your cookbook’s trailer, it might be somewhat effective (you might get 1% of their viewers to click through to your site, and maybe 1% of those will buy it… which could get you one hundred sales).  If the only person who shares your cookbook video is the “Flood Viewers With Boring Book Trailers” channel (doesn’t really exist; if it did, any subscribers it would have would likely be bots or authors looking for their own works.  Which may number in the thousands, but no-one would click through), it won’t do any good at all.

Basically, what I’m saying with all of these methods is that the way most people do them, they won’t do you any good; they are effectively invisible (either because no-one is there or because they get lost in the crowd).  Unfortunely, people keep trying them because they’ve heard they were the “secret of success.”  And when they try it, they do it wrong… and sometimes, even if they do it right, it won’t work because it almost never works… even if it used to.


The landscape of marketing has changed significantly over the years.  In the six weeks since I’ve started this blog series, Amazon has redesigned the Kindle Unlimited program’s paying structure, started stricter enforcement of certain aspects of its review policy, and has opened a one hour same-day delivery service in select cities (London has it, I think, for example).  All of these things could change how effective your marketing are, so it’s a good idea to keep a close eye on things.

The only thing about marketing you can say for sure is that it’s changing.  There are a lot of things you’ll read about working, or will have demonstrably see working once, that do not work any more (at least not like they used to).

For example, it used to be that you could price your book “free” on Amazon, and without any further promotion hundreds if not thousands of people would download it.  Those downloads used to boost your sales ranking, so a free day could boost you onto a bestseller list or three, and a lot of book browsers go through the bestseller lists.  A day of free giveaways could result in hundreds of sales across the rest of the week.

But then Amazon changed things; “buying” a free book no longer counted as a sale.  Suddenly, giving away free copies over Amazon became less attractive.  I was hanging around indie publishing Facebook groups and blogs at the time that change was made, and it took almost a year before some people figured it out (even after the announcement).  And still people promote their free days far heavier than they do their discount days.

Now, free books are still able to do something for your marketing.  Sometimes.  You might be able to get a few reviews from it, though those are hard to predict at best.  Make the first book of a long series free, and that can encourage people to buy the rest of the series.

Some book promotional sites will only advertise your book when it is free, and while you get no visibility boost on Amazon from these promotions, there is still a lingering period of a sales boost… but that usually comes from people who got the promo in the e-mail, but lingered too long and didn’t take advantage of it.  Personally, I think advertising somewhere that won’t even let you use a discount price promotion instead of a free promotion isn’t going to help you… unless you combine it with the “first book in a series” strategy mentioned above.

Another thing authors have tried as promotion that used to work — at least, it did some thirty years ago, long before eBooks made self-publishing a practical and viable solution, but authors of all origins still try it today — is sending cheap swag to bookstores.  Now, in this case what I mean by “cheap swag” is postcards, bookmarks, business cards, maybe even small catalogs.  Once upon a time, bookstores made their midlist book purchase decisions based on such things… but no longer.  Most bookstores recieve hundreds, if not thousands, of such mailings every day… and most of them just throw these things out, unread.

If you’re a local author and you’ve convinced an independent bookstore to carry your book on its shelves, you might be able to talk the cashier into putting your business card or bookmark on the counter at the checkout line, but don’t bother sending these things to them in the mail.

That’s not to say getting such things printed is worthless.  It’s always nice to have a business card, for a variety of reasons (and one of these days, I’ll actually get one printed and find all of the errors in the e-mail and web addresses before I start trying to give them away.  *sigh*).  Business cards, post cards, bookmarks, and the like are especially useful at any conventions you might attend — there is almost always somewhere where you can put such things out for free, and there are almost always a few attendees who will grab as many different pieces of promotional junk as possible while at a convention (I know; I’m one of those people).  Sometimes, those will even result in a few sales.

And, of course, T-shirts, coffee mugs, hats, and other “more expensive” types of swag are helpful, as well.  If people buy these things with your logo or book cover on them (or even get them for free, sometimes, but giving these sorts of things away en masse can easily cost you more than you gain from it), it might interest friends, co-workers, etc.  Basically, the people who get such things become walking billboards for your books whenever they use them… at least, as long as they are in public.  (Giving swag to recluses might not do much for you, in other words.  Selling them or giving them to the people at your author table at a convention, however, might be… even if some of your fans are recluses).

Which brings up book signings (it does?  Well, we’ll get there).  Once upon a time publishers or agents would schedule book signings for their authors.  Then they would run publicity for the event, which tended to make the author look like a celebrity in the public’s eye.  These resulted in a lot of people getting in line to buy the book and have him sign it — because hey, who doesn’t want a celebrity’s autograph, right?  Some of those people would read the book and mention it to their friends.  Others wouldn’t read the book, but would still mention it to their friends because, “hey, I met a celebrity at the bookstore!”  Instant word-of-mouth promotion for your book.

Well, bookstores still do book signings, and sometimes publishers or agents will even make the arrangements.  But that’s as far as they go; any publicity is generated for the signing is incidental, often consisting of a mention on a website or a single facebook and\or twitter post.  That means book signings are no longer the celebrity spectacle they once were; and by themselves, without that publicity, you’d be lucky to have a single person come for your signing… unless the author already has enough of a fanbase to draw people in by their mere presence (and once people see a crowd of fans, it generates the same effect as the old publicity machines did… though on a smaller scale)

Note that I’m not saying that book signings are worthless, but they aren’t really of any value unless something is done to encourage people to see the author as someone whose signature is worth having, or unless someone is really pushing things.  I know of one local bookstore that really likes to promote local writers.  Even though it is primarily a used book store, it has a small section that is dedicated to selling new books from local (including indie) authors.

They also really like having author signings.  They think (intelligently, in my opinion) that a good author signing will draw customers to the store, so they help push that author as well.  They co-ordinate these author signings with a monthly town-wide event (“Leesburg First Fridays“) to double-down on the promotion.  They encourage the author to push, as well, and the end result is something of a mild success.

And here is where the swag I was talking about comes into play:  Signings — if you can get people to come to them — are one of the best places to give away your swag.  People at a signing event are usually quite happy to recieve a baseball cap, shirt, novelty pen, coffee mug, etc., and (at least if it’s in the cap-shirt-mug range) will gladly display those things to their co-workers and friends by wearing or using them.  Like I said, they become walking, talking billboards for your book.

Of course, even if you can arrange a signing at your local bookstore, there’s no guarantee they will do as much as mine does.  But if you can arrange for a ‘draw’ for your signing beyond just, well, you (sorry, but in most cases, you are not enough of a draw on your own), you might be able to get something out of it.  Not as much as you used to, but something.

Despite the name of this section, many of these things can still work… but where they once worked for almost every writer, now they only work if you do them the right way, and\or sometimes only if you have specific opportunities that aren’t necessarily open to everyone, and\or only if you use a specific business model, and\or only if you target things just right, and\or only if you’re lucky.  So you have to decide whether you want to spend


Okay, so I’ve gotten this far by insisting that there is nothing that works all of the time.  I still assert that’s true, but there are a few things you can do that make all forms of marketing that much more effective.  That are marketing tools, in and of themselves.

For example, it’s extremely important to set up your categories and keywords correct.  The keywords are important because they allow your book to be found in searches.  However, they’re also important (at least on Amazon) because they can get your book entered into more than the two categories, if you pick the right keywords.

And you want your book in as many categories as possible.  Every category it’s listed in is another bestseller list you have a chance to show up on, and that makes it all the more visible for the casual browsers.  (Please don’t try promoting your book by trumpeting your rank on these bestseller lists too much — depending on the list, you could be making one sale every three days and still in the top hundred.  Pushing the idea that you’re a “bestseller” because you’re on one of these lists is not only dishonest, your customers will know you’re dishonest because disreputable self-publishers have tried this before.  It can only hurt you, so don’t do it)

It helps to build a fanbase (you’ll often see this called a “platform” in articles about the business) even before you publish your first book.  It doesn’t matter how you build this fanbase — writing fanfiction, doing a political blog, making funny youtube videos, etc. — but having a pre-existing fanbase to market to will help you a lot.  Easier said than done, I know, but it doesn’t have to be a very large fanbase, and while it can really jump-start your success, it isn’t absolutely necessary.  With one, and applying a few of the other marketing techniques I mentioned, you might be able to get enough sales together to start hitting those category bestselling lists.

But there are some things that if you don’t do them, there’s very little chance your marketing will be effective.  The first is — WRITE A GOOD BOOK!  If you don’t do that, no matter how many people you attract to read it, you won’t have any repeat customers.  Go back to part one of this series and look up everything I said (and everything else you can find) on how to make sure your book is well-edited, as well.  A good book gets you good reviews, which will attract other customers.  A poor product makes all of your other marketing efforts useless.  You’d be surprised how many people self-publishing books don’t think this matters.

The second thing is — GET DECENT COVER ART!  I know people say “you can’t judge a book by its cover,” but I’m sorry — that’s just what readers do.  Now, you don’t need it to be ‘award winning,’ but it does need to look professional.  If your cover art doesn’t look to be of professional quality, potential readers will assume the book wasn’t written by a professional, and therefore are less likely to buy it.  Your marketing efforts won’t be worth anything if your cover scares away all your customers.

Oh, and make sure your book is, you know, actually available for sale where someone might buy it.  Don’t go exclusive to someplace like “All Romance EBooks” unless you’ve written a romance novel (and even then, I would advise against exclusivity with them).  I know there seems to be a segment of the publishing community who simply cannot comprehend the idea that Amazon could potentially do things good for the publishing industry, but excluding Amazon from your sales plan is like cutting off your nose to spite your face, as the saying goes.

Finally, write more.  I’m a bad example at this, because I’ve been so slow about releasing my latest couple of books, but I’m convinced that the best way to market one book is to release the next one.  And then release the one after that.  And then the one after that.

The theory is that, with each new release, you have old people who’ve followed you, before, buy the new book, and new people discovering your writing for the first time going back and reading your other work.  That’s probably the case, but regardless — every new book is a new revenue stream.  With more books, you can do more creative marketing (like reducing the price of the first book in a long series, or making it free, in the hopes that new readers will enjoy it and buy the rest of the series).  With more money, you can afford better adverting, possibly better covers, more and\or better editors, etc.

If you get your keywords straight, get your book into the right categories, have an existing fanbase, write a good book, give it a decent cover, and put it up for sale where people might see it, whatever marketing techniques you apply just might work.  Repeat a few times, and things can really get going.  Heck, you just might be able to generate a decent number of sales without any additional marketing, if you’ve got all that.


Now, there are things I’ve heard are effective that I would like to try some day and haven’t.  Some of those are things I’ve already mentioned:  I would like to participate in a multi-author anthology (I had one opportunity, once, but I was not in a position, at the time, to do so).  I would like to be able to get a book trailer on youtube, done in a fun and interesting way and linked to from (perhaps) a youtube celebrity.  I would like to be a full-fledged guest at a convention (and not just a single-panel panelist).

But there are other things which I’ve never tried and can’t find enough information on to tell whether they’d be good marketing opportunities or not.  In some cases, I’m not even sure how I’d go about doing them… but I think they’d work, if I could.  And some of them just sound fun.

For example, I would like to be able to get a group of local indie authors together and have the bunch of us go to, say, the regional manager for Safeway (and possibly Harris Teeter and Wegmans) and see if we can get print editions of our books into their stores.  The stores in this area have fairly decent book sections (similar to Walmart’s reputed book sections, in some respect)… and, at one point, the local Safeway had a section intended for “local authors.”  Since they had trouble distinguishing local authors from national authors while buying solely from Big-5 publishers, that section languished until it was eventually re-labeled for something else… but I know there are enough local indie authors that it could have been a lot more successful if we had been included.  However, approaching them as a single author, alone, probably wouldn’t be enough to get them to re-open it.

Would it work?  I don’t know.  If it did, would it generate any significant sales?  Again, I don’t know.  But I would like to find out some day.

Also, I would like to know if getting a quote from a “Big Name Author” for the cover of my book(s) does anything for sales.  I’ve heard it can, but I don’t know if that’s true any more — especially for eBook sales.  But I would like to find out — I just don’t know who to go to that might give me one, or how to approach them.

Book clubs, perhaps?  Wikipedia suggests there are two types, and of those to I am not talking about the “Book Sales Clubs” (I would consider sites like Oyster, Scribd, and Kindle Unlimited an outgrowth of such clubs; the original being the “Book of the Month” club that Random Penguin-owner Bertelsmann originally built its publishing empire on before abandoning just a few years ago).  In its original form, this is the realm of the Trade publisher; I’m sure a group of indies could manage such a thing, but I’m not sure why one would not that the “evolved” forms of such a thing are out there, and are widely open to indie publishers.

I’m talking about getting some “Book Discussion Clubs” to buy copies of my book.  In theory, it would mean a number of initial purchases and, considering the reputed purpose behind such clubs, a lot of word-of-mouth publicity.  But does it actually work like that?  And how would I, as an indie writer, get my book considered for a group like that?  And if I could, are those groups large enough to make a significant difference?  I don’t know the answers to these questions, but I’d like to find out.

If I could find the time, I would like to take one of my books and turn it into a game with something like RPG Maker.  I suppose some writers are able to sell the rights to a software developer and get them to create a game for them, which can net the author significant money, but the rights to every book cannot be sold in that way.  But I could make the game, myself, and distribute it freely, and use the game to build interest in the book… (and its sequels).  With a video game version of my novels, I could make use of some of the alternate paths and alternate endings I had considered and later discarded.  While something like RPG Maker would be a good shortcut, it would take a LOT of time and effort to complete (which is why whole software development companies can be formed around a single game, sometimes), and I’m not sure the cost-benefit ratio would be worth it, even in the long run.  I would like to find out, some day, though.

I want to be more creative in my marketing; to come up with ideas that others haven’t.  But I don’t have the time, or the connections, or the finances, or even the number of titles needed to do all the things I want to try.

I still need time to write, after all.


The problem with marketing, in part, is that it takes time from things you’re better off doing — like writing.  It takes time and effort to build your platform, time and money to get advertising, time and skill to put together a book trailer, time and charisma to get your print book in bookstores and libraries where it can be visible, time and energy to go to a convention, etc., etc.

But if you can get yourself and\or your books to a certain point, the rest is effectively automatic; you don’t really need to do any more marketing for that book.  At least not until the next one in the series comes out, anyway.

I would like to call this the “Rule of Ten.”

If you can get ten reviews, you can start placing your book on advertising sites like the Fussy Librarian and similar easy-to-use marketing ventures, without having to wait to be approved like at Bookbub.

If you can get ten sales on Amazon, your book starts showing up on Amazon’s “Also-bot” lists.  That means Amazon starts doing a little marketing for you, and hey — who doesn’t like someone else doing your marketing for you?

If you can get ten sales in one day on Amazon, you’ll start hitting most of those genre bestseller lists.  That, again, boosts visibility and is “free” marketing.

If you can find ten people who are consistantly willing to boost your signal unsolicited, you probably don’t have to go chasing down advertisements at all — that’s your word-of-mouth advertising, for nothing.

If you can get your book on the shelves of ten bookstores and get them selling, you can probably get these bookstores to start shelving your books without having to make in-store visits; all you need to do is let the bookstore know your next book is out and they’ll shelve it based on their past sales (I have to admit, I haven’t managed this one, yet, but I’ve been assured this is true).

Finally, if you can get ten backlist (“I’m no longer advertising these”) novels all are selling just an average of two to three copies a day, each,  (a realistic number, based on what mid-list indie writer (and incoming SFWA Vice-President) MCA Hogarth has said she gets from her indie writing), you’re pretty darned close to earning a living wage (in some parts of the country) from your backlist alone.


And that’s the end… not just of this blog post, but the entire series.  There are edits to make (sigh… remember, still learning WordPress, here).  There are lots of things I didn’t think to cover (such as audiobooks, which I have no experience in and didn’t have on my outline), and other things I know I could have gone into more detail on (such as book design… though there’s a whole blog on the topic by someone more experienced in the field than me.  Oh — marketing opportunity:  If you have a new release with a good book cover, check out his monthly EBook Cover Design Awards).  There are some things I just didn’t have enough experience to feel comfortable discussing (like translations, or dealing with foriegn markets, or… well, any number of things, really).

And things change fast.  In the six weeks since I started this blog, there have been three big things happen that could completely change everything:  (1) Amazon changed the Kindle Unlimited payout system.  (2) Amazon began stricter enforcement of its review policy.  And (3) the Nook ebook store shut down its international market.  Those are all pretty big, but just how they will change the business hasn’t been fully seen, yet.

So, some day, if there’s interest, maybe I’ll write an epilog to this series.  Something like “Everything I Forgot To Cover In The Self-Publishing Roundtable, And The Stuff That’s Changed.”

If anyone’s interested, that is.

ISBNs: A Big Deal About A Small Matter (Self-Publishing Roundtable (5/6))

(As a reminder, this is part five of the series discussed here.  This series was originally concieved to be part of a roundtable discussion, so don’t be afraid to comment, disagree, offer new suggestions, etc.)


Ah, yes.  ISBNs.

A topic that comes up all the time on blogs, in Facebook groups, in forums, and even at conventions, whenever self-publishing is discussed.  One that has voices crying out with opinions, loud and strong.  It is an argument that has people spouting facts — often incorrect facts — about what an ISBN is useful for or what it can do.  It is a raging conflict that, really, matters so very little that it’s hilarious there’s this much debate about it.

Do you even need an ISBN?  And if not, why not?  And if so, what’s the best way to get one?  Well, I can’t claim to be the most authoritative voice on the subject, and I’ve been taken in by some misinformation in the past, but I do like to think I’ve become fairly well researched, now, and know what I’m talking about.

You can have a successful publishing career and never spend a single dime on ISBNs.  On the other hand, I do think there are reasons for purchasing them, albeit reasons that others might not find so important.  There are real problems with the system, and a lot of things to watch out for.  I’ve been burned, myself, but I think — between some experience and a lot of research — I’ve finally figured it out.

So, with all that in mind, let’s start with the most unsavory bit of dealing with ISBNs.


Let’s start, right away, by re-iterating:  You do not need to buy an ISBN.  It can be a nice thing to have, but it isn’t a requirement.  We’ll get into the “whys” of buying one in a moment, but first let’s discuss the “wheres.”  As in, “where should I get one?”

Well, in some countries, the answer is, “the government gives them away for free.”  I don’t live in one of those countries —  I live in the U.S.  If you live outside of the U.S., you might as well skip this section.

There is officially only one place to buy ISBNs in the U.S. — it’s a legal monopoly — but there are other places from which you can acquire one.

Many self-publishing outfits (Createspace, Smashwords, and a few others) offer you a “free” ISBN.  For the purposes of this blog, the benefits and drawbacks for all “free” ISBNs are largely the same (whichever outfit is giving them to you), but since they’ve enumerated them so well we’ll go with the descriptions given by Createspace.

Using Createspace’s “free” ISBN leaves Createspace as the imprint-of-record.  The ISBN can only be used with Createspace (so you probably do not want to use it if you’re using a print strategy of Createspace for Amazon and another printer for Expanded Distribution, as that can cause confusion).

For some reason unique to Createspace, this is the only ISBN option which also gives you access to another method of distribution, which they call “Libraries and Academic Institutions.”  But this does not mean you cannot get your book into Libraries and Academic Institutions without going through this channel.

Createspace’s Expanded Distribution program goes through one of three distribution channels.  Createspace Direct is one (I don’t know who uses Createspace Direct to buy their wholesale books, but I have to assume someone does).  The other two channels, however, are listed not by name but by description.

“Bookstores and Online Retailers” refers to Ingram… and just about every bookstore, academic institution, and library buys books from Ingram in addition to other channels.  “Libraries and Academic Institutions,” as I mentioned in my blog on Printing, is a euphemism for Baker and Taylor.  Just about every bookstore and online retailer that Ingram covers is also covered by Baker and Taylor.  The differences between the two, as far as you are concerned, are slight (yes, there are a few exceptions which are exclusive to one or the other, but thay are minor).  Now, why Baker and Taylor insists that Createspace be your publisher-of-record (this does NOT mean they are your publisher; it’s a technical term purely used for indexing) I don’t know, but that appears to be what the distribution deal between Createspace and Baker and Taylor requires.

Now, if you don’t want Createspace (or wherever else that isn’t your publishing house name) as your Publisher-of-Record (at least one reason why this might be preferable was in my last post, on print editions — namely, that there are a (very) few bookstores out there who, anecdotally, will refuse to buy your books if Createspace is their publisher of record), there are other options.  Createspace gives you a $10 option that allows you to name your own imprint-of-record, but which you can only use within Createspace; if you want to use Createspace for your Amazon books and another printer (usually Ingram) for their expanded distribution service — a strategy that several self-publishers have employed for a variety of reasons — this option will not work; you will still need to buy (or otherwise acquire) another ISBN for the other printer.  As a final option, Createspace also offers a $99 option that bypasses this requirement, though I do not recommend it — there are better options once you get to that price point.

If you plan to put more than two or three books into print, you probably are better off buying ISBNs in bulk from, but this only saves you money in the long-term.  ISBNs purchased from Bowker can be used with any printer or distributor.  Buying them in a batch of 100, you can cut the per-unit price of ISBN to $5.75 (at current prices).  Unless you are using them very quickly, that many should last you for a long time — possibly a decade or two, possibly your entire career.

“Best practice” is somewhat disputed (Bowker, of course, favors any option that makes you use ISBNs more frequently), but in general you want one for every different edition.  Initially I took that to mean (and Bowker encouraged this belief) that you needed one ISBN for your audiobook edition, one for your .mobi (Amazon) edition, one for your .epub (most other ebook stores), one for your .pdf edition (almost never used in self-publishing for fiction), one for your .lit edition (format defunct, but in the early days of eBooks this was Microsoft’s proprietary version), one for each print edition (one each for paperback and — if you have it — hardcover, and after significant enough edits (fixing a few typos is minor; the number I’ve seen is “10% of the text has changed”) or cover changes (if you change your cover design imagery, that’s generally considered a new edition; fixing a minor flaw, like a slightly misaligned spine, probably wouldn’t be)), etc., etc.

Bowker’s advice seems a little… overagressive, but they have been the authority on ISBNs since before 1967 (when the standard was formally adopted).  Their word seems like it should be the authoritative one… but the end-users of ISBNs (basically, printers, bookstores, libraries, and anyone who creates book catalogs) have gone against them, for once.  The end-users seem to want different ISBNs for each Print edition (as described above), one for any audiobook edition, and one for ALL ebook types (so .mobi and .epub are the same).  Unfortunately, if you’ve already assigned an ISBN to multiple electronic formats of a book unnecessarily, you can’t reclaim it.

(EDITED TO ADD:  This article on technical debt has me thinking that Bowker’s advice in terms of having seperate ISBNs for each ebook type might have some merit… but I still wouldn’t bother distinguishing between ePub and .mobi, as the formatting standards for these two file types are reasonably identical.  If you sell a .pdf version, however, I’d strongly consider it for the purposes of future-proofing)

And speaking of Bowker, you should never buy anything from Bowker other than your ISBN as a self-publisher.  Do not buy barcodes from them, even though they like to include them in (frankly, overpriced) “package deals” — there are dozens of ways to create a barcode from your isbn number for free (such as this one).  That’s assuming you even need one — Createspace puts a barcode on your print covers for free, regardless of what ISBN option you use, and they are useless with eBooks.

Bowker also offers the following services:  Ebook creation, cover design, editing, rights management, QR Codes, a “look inside the book” widget, book publicity, SAN numbers, and ISNI numbers.  Few of these are worth the money, and none of them are worth the money for a self-publisher.  Even ISBNs are just barely worth it, in my view.  Assigning your book to a particular ISBN will list it in Books Into Print, which is the only other thing of marginal worth Bowker does, and that’s free with purchase.


So, what good are ISBNs, anyway?  Ask two different people, you’ll get two different answers.  The amount of misinformation on ISBNs — both from ISBN advocates and anti-ISBN advocates — is horrific.  Half of the rumors are things someone, at some point in some author’s career, told as a lie in order to exploit that author, and the author fell for it.  It’s led to a lot of self-publishers wanting nothing to do with ISBNs, and admittedly the value of an ISBN is very… insubstantial, and rarely does much directly for the author.

I once sat in a convention listening in on a “self-publishing workshop” where the “expert” giving the workshop said that the free ISBN number gave Createspace “exclusive publishing rights” to his print books.


For the record, an ISBN number is an indexing tool.  It has nothing to do with “publishing rights” of any type.  All that Createspace owning your ISBN does is say you cannot use that same ISBN with another printer; you can still apply a different ISBN to the same book and publish it elsewhere.  Even the “publisher of record” bit is insignificant, as that is merely an indexing tool… (though some people who use those indexing tools view a listing of “Createspace” as a signal that the book is self-published, even though some small presses use it as well.  If you’re trying to sneak your book into a bookstore that won’t normally deal with self-published authors, like Hudson’s, you’d better not have Createspace listed as your publisher of record).

Now there might be a few distributors and niche bookstores who require ISBNs on your eBooks.  I think just about any significant print distributor requires one, as well, as does Barnes and Noble (at least if you want to be shelved).  But most eBook retailers do not require ISBNs — Kindle doesn’t, Nook Press doesn’t, Apple iBooks used to but doesn’t any more.  Libiro doesn’t….

Who does?  Well…

  • Kobo doesn’t require it, but warns that you will not get full international distribution without one.
  • Smashwords wants them for their “Premium Catalog” (distribution service), but they will give you a free one.
  • Xinxii requires one for some of their channels (but will apparently offer you a German-based ISBN if you don’t have one, according to their FAQ; I’m not sure how to apply for it).
  • Narcissus.Me doesn’t say, but offers you a free one.
  • Omnilit\All Romance Ebooks does, and they also will give you a free one as well (though the process is more complicated).
  • Google Play doesn’t, but appears to require it if you get to them through a third-party distributor like Xinxii.
  • It appears as if Overdrive does, though I can only guess what would happen if you managed to go to them direct instead of through a 3rd party distributor such as Smashwords.
  • I’m not even going to guess about the international bookstores that  can only be accessed through one of those third party distributors I’ve already covered.
  • Ingram requires one, as do most legitimate printers with any significant distribution.  Ingram does not assign you a free ISBN, so if you want to skip out on paying for ISBNs you should probably go through Createspace.

The point is, despite the assertion of some anti-ISBN advocates, there really are a few bookstores which require it, though you can usually get a free ISBN (typically with the same conditions as Createspace’s free one) if you need to.  And there are a few self-published authors willing to sacrifice those bookstores if it means getting out of having to use an ISBN, as well.

But what good is the ISBN?  Beyond gaining entry to a few obscure online bookstores and some printers, ISBN is useful for cataloging.

Okay, but surely there’s more to it than that, right?  It wouldn’t be such a big deal if it wasn’t.

Well… not on the publisher’s end.  Even for marketing, the effect of an ISBN is insubstantial — some people used to say that having an ISBN made your book look more “professional” and therefore would encourage readers to buy it, but most readers never even notice if a book has one or not when making purchasing decisions.

ISBN is for the benefit of the end-user.  I phrase it that way (instead of “reader”) because the person most likely to care about it are the people who shelve the book; the bookstore workers and the librarians.  Even book collectors might desire an ISBN — trust me, I know from experience that when you have a personal library of thousands of books, having an app that will catalog your book for you by scanning the ISBN is very handy (but only so long as your collection has ISBN numbers.  If less than 10% of your collection has ISBNs, those apps can only help you so far)

So the question becomes:  Do you want to make the lives of the bookseller, the librarian, and the book collector easier?  Or, let’s put it another way — do you want to do something nice for the person who sells your book, who helps market your book, and\or who buys your book?  If the answer to that is “yes,” then you might just want to use the ISBN system.

And yes, I would recommend buying (in bulk) from Bowker over going with a free one, but that’s my personal opinion — since I’m going to use them anyway, I like the idea of owning them myself instead of sub-licensing them.  But this is definitely one of those “your mileage may vary” issues.


This is just a quick mention of copyrights; it’s not related to ISBNs (got that?  Copyright and ISBN have nothing to do with each other), but it doesn’t really fit anywhere else, and it isn’t a big enough topic to justify a section of its own.

Your book is under copyright from the moment it is completed.  So, why do you need to register, and when should you do it?

Well, the biggest reason for registering your copyright is that you effectively cannot file a lawsuit to enforce your copyright until it is registered (well, you can, but your options in doing so are limited).  “Timely” registration (within three months of publication, or before any infingement has taken place) will increase your chance of success in such a lawsuit.  You also set the damages for a violation to $150,000 and, in many cases, you can force the violator to pay your legal bill.  (I’m not sure what damages you can cover if such registration isn’t timely, but it’s considerably less.  If you don’t even register, well, you might be able to “enforce” your copyright with DMCA-Takedown notices and the like, but you’ll get no financial compensation even in a lawsuit).

As far as “when” to do it, this is one of the most confusing things for new authors to grasp.  The U.S. Copyright Office may now have a mechanism in place for you to pre-register your copyright, but they prefer that you hold off on registering your copyright until after you publish.  Now, it’s best to register in a timely manner (within three months… or as soon as possible), but don’t bother even trying until you’re done.

Also, be smart — register on-line.  It isn’t really any faster (it takes them months to review your application), but it’s a lot cheaper (I think around $50 cheaper, now; it used to be an even greater difference), and only requires an electronic version of your book to get your copyright registered (note:  There is some confusion about this; your copyright should be registered with just the electronic copies.  To file it with the Library of Congress, however, you must mail in a “best edition,” which is usually your print edition.  But if you don’t have a print edition at the time you file (when you submit the forms, not when they complete the registration) — and I usually don’t release a print edition until a month or so after my eBook edition has been published, and you can’t mail them what doesn’t exist — they do take electronic editions).

Oh, and one last warning:  The Copyright Office is extremely slow (though I understand there might be ways of speeding it up, if you need the certificate in a hurry).  In Treachery Forged went nine months between my registering and the certificate arriving; the certificate for The Kitsune Stratagem — which I registered in August of 2014 — arrived on earlier this month (I’m writing these blogs a week or two in advance; at the time I’m writing this, it showed up today, on July 9th, 2015).  And that was with no issues; if they had asked for any clarifications (which they might, especially if you’re filing for copyright registration on something complicated such as an anthology or collection) who knows how long it would have taken.

And that is copyright in a nutshell.  It has absolutely nothing to do with ISBN, and ISBN has absolutely nothing to do with it.


For some reason, ISBN numbers seem to spark a lot of passion in the self-publishing community.   I have sat back and watch self-publishing bigwigs get into knockdown, drag-out fights on Facebook over the issue of ISBNs.  I know people who evangelize on the importance of including them, and others on the horribly waste of money that they are.

Why?  This whole argument just seems silly.  ISBNs are a thing.  They are worth… well, something, at least.  They are not, however, worth getting into fights over.

I am the son of a librarian.  I am sure my late father would roll over in his grave if I ever put a book out there without an ISBN number, so I certainly will include them on all of my books… but they are conveniences, not requirements, for the publishing process.  It costs a little money, but it isn’t horribly expensive spread across several books, and its a nice thing to include for your end-users.

But some people seem to think if you advocate paying anything to add a convenience to your books, you are somehow damaging the self-publishing cause, and so you should bitterly fight against them.


Print Editions: Why Not? (Self-Publishing Roundtable (4/6))

(As a reminder, this is part four of the series discussed here.  This series was originally concieved to be part of a roundtable discussion, so don’t be afraid to comment, disagree, offer new suggestions, etc.)


Many, many times — in indie writer forums and facebook groups — I have seen authors who are successful (sometimes more successful than I am) publishing their ebooks, but who seem utterly perplexed when it comes down to print editions.  Not just the design (as I said in part one of this series, you can hire people to do both the book design and the cover art, if it really gets to be too much for you), but simply with the whole idea of picking a POD service, getting those books into print stores, and even with what you want a print edition for when most of the money, for an indie, is in eBooks.

Print books, for the self-publisher, are difficult to handle.  You have to set high retail prices, book design is much more complex for print than it is for the eBook, print books doesn’t sell much, etc., etc.  There are a few self-published writers, out there, who just don’t see any reason to publish their books in print.

So why would you ever bother to put your book in print?  Well, why not?  It may take a little time and effort, and there are things you need to watch out for, but if you know what you’re doing there’s no real reason not to.


There was a time when Print-On-Demand books were considered the hallmark of a shoddy publisher.  The books produced are of low quality (well, not any more, but it was true of some POD companies in the early days), bookstores don’t like stocking them (once again, this used to be true, but — with a few exceptions — this is no longer the case), and they cost more to produce than offset printing.

If you are fortunate enough to be selling hundreds or thousands of copies of your print books, you might want to consider offset printing. It is cheaper per book, wholesale, but you have to deal with warehousing and distribution, and you can’t guarantee that every copy you print will sell.  In order to see the savings, you have to print your books in bulk.  Most self-publishers sell print books slowly (if at all), and the cost of warehousing and distribution for that many books more than offsets the savings.

POD, on the other hand, has no warehousing and little or no distribution costs.  The might be some set-up fees (or there might not be, depending on POD provider), and distribution costs (which may be nothing, depending on POD provider).  And you should probably factor in the cost of buying at least one proof copy ($8-10, roughly, for a 300-400 page novel).  But those are relatively minor costs and can easily be avoided (though I really do think you should be sure to buy a proof).

There are three major POD providers that most self-publishers deal with in the U.S.  We’ll go into a few others you might want to consider dealing with in a later section, and a few to avoid (including one that goes by many, many different names, and actually has its tendrils in one of the major ones, but more on that later), but for now we’ll focus on these big three.  They each have different costs, focuses, and abilities.  If you’re at all experienced with POD publishing, you probably already know their names, but just in case let’s go over them again.

To begin with, there is Createspace.  This is the big one, the one most people will start with.  Well, in the United States, anyway — this is not an option in some countries.  Createspace automatically (or, if the bot misses it, with a quick e-mail) associates your print book with your Kindle-published eBook, charges no set-up fees, charges no distribution fees, and distributes through and (domestically) Ingram.  The wholesale price per copy is easily the cheapest of these POD producers (at least for black and white books; if you want a color interior, there are better options) and shipping is cheaper as well.

Createspace is not perfect.  They do not print their own books outside of the US.  They do service customers outside of the U.S., but they outsource their printing for sale on and various services.  Who provides that printing is not clear (I communicated with an Ingram UK employee; while Ingram does some printing for Amazon in the US, they do not print books in the UK for them), and the quality can very be hit and miss.

But if you are an author and you order a proof, you’re ordering it from the U.S. Printer.  This means, if you are in the UK or Europe, you are paying to ship your proofs and wholesale copies across the Atlantic (a cost that is often greater than buying it retail, as those purchased retail are shipped from the country they are printed).  Since your proofs come from not just a different printer, but an entirely different country, this can cause problems in assessing the quality of the proof.

In the U.S., Createspace has multiple printers of its own, yet occasionally will still outsource some production to Ingram.  The quality of its books in the US are generally pretty good, but the multiple printers are inconsistant and frequently make changes in paper type and quality.  I’ve had them print my spine crooked or up to an eighth of an inch off-center on the spine for one batch, yet have it perfectly lined up the next with no change in the book cover design.

Some bookstores (the evidence I’ve heard is all anecdotal, and a couple years old, but seems well-supported by other local authors I’ve talked to) simply will not (officially) carry Createspace-printed books.  However, the only way they have to tell if a book is printed by Createspace is via ISBN number; if you do not list Createspace as your publisher-of-record (i.e., if you use the $10, $99, or custom ISBN options) they cannot be certain your book is printed by Createspace (note: This issue is discussed in more detail in my article on ISBNs).

Other bookstores refuse to carry Createspace-printed books because Createspace does not fully support the classic returns system (though the returns system is not necessarily something worthwhile, it can be necessary to get into some bookstores).

Createspace does not print Hardbacks (well, they used to, but only by special arrangement and not for distribution; it was never a practical thing for self-publishers, and I learned from a recent Facebook discussion that this service no longer exists).

Finally, I would recommend against using the “professional services” (the in-house editing\layout\cover artist\marketing) for any and all POD companies.  Many are worse than Createspace (I’ll discuss why, below), but even here they aren’t worth the money.

Yet despite these flaws it’s still the best option for most  (if you are doing a children’s book, photo book, or other heavily illustrated text, you might want to consider one of the other options I list below) self-publishers looking into POD.  It’s inexpensive, low-hassle, and reputedly has the best customer service of the bunch.  For the amateur, it has one of the easiest-to-use user interfaces in the business, good tutorials and a built-in support community.  It’s cheap and easy, it produces an acceptable product (well, usually), and it makes your book available in print anywhere in the U.S. and on Amazon.

But there are alternatives, some of which offer options Createspace does not.  Some people chose Createspace and another printer, others choose to stay with just one printer.  Createspace isn’t even an option in some countries, and isn’t always the best choice even where it is available.

One popular alternative is Lulu.  Lulu’s popularity, in part, is because they have been around for a while, and they produce decent books.  I do not recommend Lulu in any circumstances, but they are a viable alternative if you are careful when dealing with them.

Lulu has no set-up fees (just like Createspace).  It has a hardcover option (though the costs of a Lulu hardcover, after distribution fees, are far too high for it to be worth it). It provides distribution through, Ingram, Amazon, and Barnes and Noble.  And its books (at least at the “premium” level; they offer lower-grade books, but they are not eligible for distribution, and are not worth the cost) are of decent, professional-grade quality.

However, Lulu’s books are more expensive.  Comparing the cost of a 300 page perfectbound paperback book (of quality that allows for distribution) on each of the three major POD companies, Lulu’s books routinely cost $1-2 more to produce… at least in the U.S. (I cannot compare the numbers, myself, but through Facebook I know someone from South Africa who says that Lulu’s paperbacks are the cheapest where he lives, so if you aren’t in the U.S. you’ll have to doublecheck these numbers).

Lulu offers price calculators on its website which are very up-front about the raw costs of book production with them.  Like Createspace, they do not participate in the Returns system.

I’m going to emphasize this here, even though I’ve already said it elsewhere:  DO NOT USE THEIR “PUBLISHING SERVICES”.  Lulu’s “Publishing Services” are outsourced to a company whose reputation (and the lawsuits accompanying that reputation) makes it seem like one of the worst scams in publishing, today.  If you are curious about the details, read the part on Author Solutions in the next section.

A better option (and yes, that is my unequivocal opinion… at least over Lulu) is Ingram Spark.  If you are moderately successful with print sales, Ingram is the company to go to.  Now, Ingram Spark is the “entry level” version of Ingram’s Lightning Source POD program (and offers offset printing services, as well; Ingram is the largest printer in the country, serving many publishers of all sizes).  You may have heard of Lightning Source, but for the sake of brevity we’ll only talk about Ingram Spark; most services offered by one are offered by the other, and Ingram Spark is the one you’re most likely to be dealing with.

Ingram has some set-up fees; $49 per title (though this can get waived, if you sell enough books early on).  They also have distribution fees of $12/year, and a rather annoying $25 fee for correcting mistakes in your files after uploading (which effectively means $25 for any post-Proof corrections).  Black and white books produced are slightly more per unit than Createspace’s (though the difference is negligible), but are significantly cheaper than Lulu’s.

Color books, however, are far cheaper per copy; less than half what Createspace costs, and almost five times less than Lulu.  The print quality for all of their books are compareable to Createspace’s best.

The price per copy from Ingram can drop if you have heavy sales, much like with offset printing.  Distribution is better, despite the cost (Amazon only uses Ingram’s domestic distribution service; Ingram is also the largest international book distributor in the world).  And Ingram offers three things the other POD providers don’t:

  1. Control the return policy.  Returns can help in getting your book stocked on bookstores’ shelves instead of just buried in their online bookstore.  Still, you might not want to deal with it — Ingram gives you the option of accepting returns or not.  (Please refer to the article I linked to, above; “returns” may not mean what you think it means)
  2. Ingram produces and distributes hardback books for a reasonable price.  I would say that this is the only practical way to get sellable hardbacks from one of the big three POD producers.
  3. Adjustable “discount rates.”  This is the percentage that your book price is discounted when a bookstore purchases it.  Adjust it one way, your royalties increase; increase it the other, the bookstore pays less when ordering it for their shelves.

A note about discount rates:  SOME sources claim that Createspace only gives booksellers a 25% discount, whereas the industry standard — and the default for Ingram Spark — is closer to 40-45%.  I’ve also seen others say that this policy has changed for Createspace, and it now provides the standard discount.  I don’t have the insider information to know which is true, but it’s something to keep in mind.

This does not mean Ingram is always the best choice for a self-publisher.  Far from it — the set-up fees and recurring annual distribution fees sour me on it, a bit — but there are times it might be.

Basically, questions to ask when considering Ingram over Createspace:

  1. Are you regularly giving away or hand-selling fifty copies (the amount needed to waive most set-up fees) of your novel in the first three months?  If so, consider Ingram.
  2. Do you expect a large part of your print-book customer base to be outside of the U.S.?  If so, consider Ingram.
  3. Are your overall sales heavy enough that offset printing is starting to look good?  If so, consider Ingram as an alternative — they can offer some of the benefits of offset printing (bulk discounts) even using POD technology.
  4. And finally, are you printing books with a color interior?  Consider Ingram… though there may be other alternatives.

I would not say “Createspace is for beginners and Ingram is the Big Leagues,” but I might say that Ingram can be the better choice for those self-publishers with larger and more established print markets.  If you’re just starting out and you don’t know, yet, how your book will fare in print, stick with Createspace.


We’ve covered the biggest POD options, but there are others.  It’s hard to find adequate data on some of them, and while one or two might be useful there are problems with a lot of them.  I’ll give you some examples of what to watch out for, and one or two which are pretty good.

One of those “pretty good” POD options is one I might better call a “supplemental” POD distributor:  The Espresso Book Machine.

This wonder of a device can can be found in a number of bookstores and some libraries (I attended the “grand opening” of an Espresso Book Machine in my local library about a year ago.  The books it made were pretty good).  These are (relatively) tiny Print-On-Demand Machines that will get you your book in roughly six minutes, if you can find them.

If you are with Lightning Source or Ingram Spark, your book should be put into the EBM catalog automatically (I’m not clear on the procedure, but I’m told it’s an opt-in\opt-out channel in your distribution agreement).  If you go through Lulu or Createspace, however, you’ll have to put yourself into the catalog manually.  Until recently, you had to go to an EBM representative in person in order to get this to happen, but (and I have yet to determine how fast or successful it is) they now have an online option for listing your books.

Please note, putting your books into the Espresso Book Machine catalog will not put your book into Ingram or any other distribution service; it will not be for sale on Amazon, at Barnes and Noble, Books-A-Million, or anywhere else unless there’s an Espresso Book Machine present.  That is why I’d call this more of a supplemental option to your regular POD service.

Now, if you are interested in POD but for some reason refuse to do business with Lulu, Createspace, or Ingram, there might still be a viable option or two.

I’ve heard good things about a smaller POD company named Blurb.  This one is favorably compareable to Lulu, but until recently they were not equipped to handle novels; I’ve been taking a bit of a “wait and see” approach to them, but I’ll tell you what I know.

Before the middle of 2014. Blurb’s specialty was high quality photo books.  They wouldn’t be especially useful if you were producing any other kind of book, so I’ve essentially ignored them.  But, in 2014, a press release announced that they would be offering more options… including some that are quite adequate for novels.

Reviews I’ve read say that they produce the best “coffee-table” photo book in the POD market (even better than some digital offset printers).  They claim to distribute through Amazon and Ingram, and do appear to have both paperback and hardback options.

While I haven’t done much intensive study of Blurb so far, I’m looking into them more and more.  My mother is putting together a book on quilting, and I’m considering suggesting she put it out through Blurb.  Perhaps I’ll have a supplementary blog on their service once that is complete.

If you still aren’t satisfied with your POD options, however, there’s… uh… well… I’m not really sure if they’re an option or not….

Several years ago, in response to Ingram’s creation of Lightning Source, Baker and Taylor created its own POD service:  Textstream.  Now you know as much about them as I do.

Well, okay, maybe I know a little more.  Textstream opened with little or no fanfare, never had web-based access (you would have to make arrangements for your book’s production through e-mail and telephone conversations), and never really became a big-name player on the market… but somehow survived, and their website insists they still exist.  How that happened, I’m not quite sure, but if it exists it might be able to take on your projects.

Mind you, I only know of one self-publisher who even tried to deal with them.  He ordered some comparison proofs from them; his sample was adequate, but he complained extensively about the difficulties he had getting his instructions and files out to them.  This comparison shopper later decided to go with Ingram, so take of that what you will.

That was back in 2009, when Textstream was the new guy on the block; Createspace and Ingram have improved significantly since then, while Textstream… well, I really can’t say if what’s happened to them is an improvement or not.

Two years ago Baker and Taylor bought out a company called Bookmasters in an effort to create some sort of web interface for Textstream.  I think it is aimed more at the small press traditional-style publisher, however.  I have yet to see how you can use this web interface as a self-publisher; just to get a quote for their print service, you need to submit project details that include an order for a hundred books.

That doesn’t seem like it takes advantage of the best features of POD service, to me — namely, the ability to make print runs that are smaller than is practical with digital offset printing.  However, I’m betting (I have no proof, mind) that there’s an undocumented way to use them.  I suspect, if you went to them through e-mail and telephone (as with the original Textstream), you might be able to make special arrangements for the printing and distribution of your book.

I would not attempt it unless I was writing in a genre Baker and Taylor would be a better distributor than Ingram… which pretty much limits you to Academic or Christian publishing.  Even then, well, they don’t give you their terms of service anywhere, so you’re still probably better off with either Ingram or Createspace.  (Baker and Taylor, you could make yourself a legitmate contender with just a little work.  I know you are a well-respected distributor, so why aren’t you even trying to keep yourselves competitive?)

Full disclaimer:  I’ve never talked to anyone who actually used Bookmasters, successfully, either before or after their acquisition by Baker and Taylor.  What I can tell you, however, is that as difficult as it may be to work with them, I haven’t seen any scam warnings about either company.  I have seen some cautionary tales about Bookmasters in the form of Yelp reviews, but only regarding those issues I’ve already mentioned (they’re hard to work with).  From the few reviews I was able to find, the quality of the books they produce is quite decent, comparable with Ingram, and Baker and Taylor distribution is fairly good (on par with Ingram, domestically, but with a bit more emphasis towards certain genre).

The biggest recommendation I can give them is that Textstream is generally competent in production and distribution once things are set up, and does not appear to be intentionally trying to rip off authors.  The same cannot be said for all the alternatives.

Smaller POD companies have to be carefully examined.  They aren’t necessarily rip-offs, but they can be lacking in some other area.  Take TheBookPatch as an example.  Their prices are a touch high per book, but are compareable to Lulu’s (distributable) books.  The books they produce are, per reviews, fairly decent in quality.   If all you’re looking for is one or two review copies and that’s it, they’re more than adequate.  Now, I’m not sure why you’d go to the trouble of prepping a print book and then only produce a couple review copies, but if that’s all you want The Book Patch is adequate.

The big catch is that they don’t offer distribution — the books they produce aren’t listed on Amazon, they won’t go through Ingram or Baker and Taylor, and they won’t be in any local bookstores.  So, you make yourself a print book and you can’t make it for sale.

So, the Book Patch is only of limited use.  There are worse options out there — companies you should never deal with.

About a decade ago, there were a lot of independent POD companies with distribution through Ingram and Amazon and the like.  One was Lulu, and is still around.  One was Lightning Print, which eventually became Lightning Source (and now includes Ingram Spark).  One was eventually bought by Amazon (Createspace, then known as Booksurge).

But a lot of them — of varying reputations — were bought up by a company called Author Solutions Inc.  Author Solutions also developed “self-publishing” (*snort*) arms for larger publishers, each under different names.  Author Solutions, therefore, controls POD (and eBook production) companies under the names iUniverse, Trafford, Palibrio, AuthorHouse, Book Tango, Wordclay, XLibris, Partridge, Book Country, Archway (Simon and Schuster), Hay House (Balboa Press), Crossbooks (Lifeway), Guideposts (Inspiring Voices), Westbow Press (Harper Collins), and probably a few other names.  They also appear to run the Nook Press’ print division and Lulu’s Author Services (which is why I made special warnings against Lulu’s author services in the section above).

Author Solutions is owned by the parent company of Penguin Random House (or, as I like to call them, Random Penguin).  You would think that would mean they were a legitimate organization (though you might also remember that the Famous Writers School was operated by the pre-merger Random House back in the 60s, and that didn’t exactly legitimize it).  Unfortunately, it is (“allegedly,” for the lawyers out there) a scam — instead of legitimate POD and self-publishing assistance, they are a worst-practices vanity press of the highest order, and still peddle their services despite an ongoing lawsuit.  A typical experience publishing with them was recounted here.

Recall me mentioning that Author Solutions runs Nook Press’ print division?  Well, not only does Nook Press insist on using Author Solutions’ worthless services, they don’t offer any kind of distribution — not even on Barnes and Noble’s website!  So, you spend thousands of dollars getting a print book produced (being gouged all along the way, thanks to Author Solutions), and then no-one can buy it.  If you don’t want distribution, go with TheBookPatch; they at least offer honest service.

In other words… if you find a POD service I haven’t mentioned here, you might want to be very careful while investigating it.  Find out how they are distributed, if they are at all.  Read reviews (though don’t trust every article — Author Solutions fakes a lot of comparison reviews to make themselves look good).  Look for warning signs.  It just might be another scam printer.


Once you’ve found someone to publish your print books, the “obvious” thing to do is to sell them on Amazon, Barnes and Noble, and whatever other bookstores you can get them in.

But many indie authors sell so few print copies they make little or no net profit on them… so why spend the time and energy getting them produced?  Well, First off, you need some as giveaway items.

For example, good reviews help get your book launched.  Sometimes, these reviews come naturally; other times, you have to go out and track them down.  One way to get those reviews legitimately (Amazon recently reformed their review system to reduce the amount of paid for or otherwise unethically produced reviews; there’s been a bit of flack because the net is catching a few honest reviewers, too) is to give away review copies.  Sometimes, these reviewers insist on print copies.

The giveaway print copy is, for lack of a better word, your portfolio.  Do you want to apply to be a guest at a convention?  Well, name recognition is the best way to get a spot… but the second best is to sending the convention organizers a free copy that show them your stuff as a writer — and usually, they would prefer a print copy (though do inquire, first).

Once at the convention, displaying a free copy on your panelist table is like posting a billboard with your book on it.  Heck, just carrying a copy around so that the cover is visible (if you’ve got a good enough cover) might generate sales.  Have it on display when you’re traveling mass transit, and people get interested.  I’m not saying this sort of thing will put you on the bestseller list, but it could help; at least, it’s reputed to have sold books, before.

And then there are library copies.  Sure, libraries now sometimes allow self-published ebook to grace their virtual walls, thanks to companies like Overdrive.  Overdrive doesn’t exactly put your book front and center, however (especially the books put into their system from Smashwords; evidently, your book is placed on some sort of super-secret “this book was self-published” list, which is nearly inaccessable unless you already know its there.  No, really!

Put a physical book on the shelves of your local library, though, and people might actually see it on occasion.   Most libraries do have some form of purchase request system; some will even shelve a book if you donate it (check first, though; far too many public and academic library systems insist (as a policy that a mere local librarian is forbidden from overriding) that any donations be put into book sale fundraisers, only, so your book still won’t end up on their shelves).

And, of course, you want to be able to sell your books.  Your local bookstore usually prefers selling your books in print.


There is a trick to getting your books into bookstores.  That trick is to make sure that the bookstore can acquire one to be sold (no, really — that’s the trick!).  You put your book through one of the major distributors (like Ingram, either directly or through your POD producers distribution system, as Amazon does), and most bookstores serviced by that distributor will list your book for sale on their web store.

Don’t believe me?  Well, if you have a print book in the Expanded Distribution system of Amazon or similar channel, and you paid attention to the section on print books during my blog on Pricing, check Powells.  It might be missing your cover, but it will most likely listed there.

But having your book in a bookstore’s online store is quite different than having it on that bookstore’s shelves.  And you want it on the shelves, if at all possible.

Now, there are a variety of ways to get books on bookshelves.  Whichever way you go, however, you need a good book — if you’re one of those authors who are trying to publish “practice” work or similarly feel as if your book is of otherwise inferior quality, it might be best not to try until you come out with what you might be willing to call “professional-looking.”

But once you have a good book, there are a few paths to success.  There are the old ways — which are probably too complicated for the average “intermediate” self-publisher, but not completely out of the realm of possibility.  I don’t bother with them, so I can’t really say anything on them, but Kristine Kathryn Rusch put together an extensive description of the process, if you’re interested.

Ugh.  Who wants to do all of that?  Worse, who can do that while still finding the time and energy they need to write the books they’re trying to sell?  This method is probably quite effective, but I’m not sure the cost-benefit ratio is there (in terms of both financial costs and time) for most self-publishers.

Fortunately, there are less… let’s call it “labor intensive” ways to get your book onto some bookstore’s bookshelves.  I’ll admit few are as effective as the old ways, but they should be a lot more palatable.

There are effectively only two major bookstore chains remaining in the U.S.:  Barnes and Noble and Books-A-Million  Both of these are theoretically open to the self-publisher in the US., with some effort.  (There are smaller chains in the U.S., such as Hastings — which is less and less interested in books, period — and Hudson’s, which mostly runs Airport bookstores.  As of the last time I checked, both these smaller chains refuse to carry self-published books)  But smaller, independent stores are growing more and more open to independent and self-published authors.

Start by searching the ABA Member Directory for your state (and any other nearby state you think is “local” enough for you to get to in person; for example, if you live along the Potomac River, you want to look into stores in both Virginia and Maryland).  And yes, search by state — checking by City, Zip Code, or Company Name won’t get you enough results.  Identify the independent bookstores from that list who service your genre… and go visit them.  In person.  (Incidently, you might as well try used bookstores; my books went onto the shelves of a used bookstore that also had a “local authors” section)

Talk with the owners (or the manager, or whoever is present that can make decisions).  Let them know you are a local author (the more local the better).  Ask if they are willing to carry your books.  You may have to supply these books yourself (many only take them on consignment), but most of the time they’re willing to carry it for you.

Note:  As I will cover in ISBNs, sometimes — and I emphasize that this really isn’t common, but anecdotally it happens — an indie bookstore is hostile to Amazon yet still open to indie books.  If they go to order your book and find that it was printed by Createspace, they might reject your book at that point.  This can be revealed when they look up your book’s ISBN number for ordering and find Createspace listed as the publisher-of-record (a technical term referring to the ISBN’s owner, but I’ll get into more detail on that in the ISBN post), so there you have one of the few remaining legitimate cases for purchasing said number yourself.

Okay, there — you’ve got the local indies on board.  But what about the national chains, Barnes and Noble and Books-a-Million?  Well… with them, things get a little more complicated.

Once again, I have to talk about things I’ve only heard about other people doing, and not things I’ve done, myself.  Personally, I’m trying to build my experience a bit before I try it (your chances of success may be better when you have a larger “portfolio” of books you can point to), but I know quite a few writers who report success using this procedure, so I’m guessing it works.

With Books-A-Million, you have to contact your local store’s manager… or the regional manager, perhaps.  Depends on the bookstore.  Books-A-Million’s system is rather nebulous; does it require that you accept returns?  Must you have an ISBN?  Will they even take self-published writers?  I’ve heard from different people in different parts of the country who all say different things about what the answers to these questions are.  I think your best bet is to ask the regional manager what he thinks the ‘corporate policy’ is; if they’re at all open to the idea of adding self-published books to their shelves, they’ll tell you what you need to do.

Barnes and Noble is a bit different.  Now, I’ve heard that sometimes a store manager or regional manager will claim that Barnes and Noble has a policy forbidding self-published novels.  However, there really is a policy in place, and it’s there for anyone to see on the Barnes and Noble website.

To sell your book, they say, they want you to:

  1.  Become a “Vendor of Record.”  If you don’t want to click on the link, what it says is that you need to fill out a form; they will check out your eligible titles (they say titles are only eligible if you have an assigned ISBN with a hardback or paperback cover (no comb bindings).
  2. Once they are done checking, you will be asked to send “a copy of the book (no manuscripts, please), along with marketing and promotion plans, trade reviews, and a note describing what makes the book unique” to their small press department.  Before sending that information, you might want to check out this (curiously seperate and unlinked-to from the Vendor of Record application) document here, describing what they actually want in that communique.  To sum up, they want an ISBN number and bar code, quality binding, competitive pricing, wholesale availability, and a marketing\publicity plan.
  3. Convince the store manager that people in the region will be interested in your book.  (So, in other words, at this point the procedure is largely identical to the local independent bookstores, except Barnes and Noble is far less likely to request you sell your books on consignment)

Now, this is the national corporate policy as laid out on their website.  The regional managers, however, sometimes have their own rules (which they sometimes claims are “corporate policy”), such as the book needs to be in the returns system.  I’ve heard some people get their book into their local stores without being in said system.  If your regional manager insists on it, however, protesting won’t do much good.  If that same manages absolutely refuses to carry your book because it’s self-published… well, item 3 on that list pretty much says it all; you’re out of luck in that region’s stores.

Dealing with bookstores can be tricky.  It doesn’t help that you probably aren’t the first self-published author who’s approached them, and likely won’t be the last, and that so many self-published authors have done stupid things dealing with bookstores that it leaves them gun-shy.  It doesn’t help that there is still sometimes a stigma to self-publishing among the veteran bookstore set, who tend to be the regional managers you have to deal with.  It doesn’t help that there are a lot of self-publishers out there who really aren’t good writers or who act badly; enough to reinforce the self-publishing stigma among those who still have it.  All you can do is be as professional about things as you can be, and hope that’s enough.

I’ve seen lots of people try different things.  Some people their book with Createspace to sell on Amazon, but opt out of Expanded Distribution so they can also publish with Ingram Spark (using the returns system, variable discount, and the lack of a connection with Amazon to help make their case) for Barnes and Noble and similar bookstores.  And there are those people who walk into the store, talk to the manager, and get their POD-printed, non-returnable, Createspace ISBNed book placed without a hassle; these people don’t seem able to comprehend that this isn’t necessarily a typical experience.

But, with a little work, it can be done.


Okay, you’ve found a printer, sent some copies off to reviewers, made sure your book was on the shelves at your local bookstore, and paraded a copy of your book around the local sci-fi convention.  That’s more than you usually have to do to get your ebooks selling.  So the money should just start flowing in… right?

Well, probably not.  Most of the time, self-publishers don’t sell as well in print as they do e-books (and I’m no exception).  And they probably never will, since huge print sales success depends on bookstores marketing for you (making your book more visible… sometimes literally), and it isn’t likely most self-published authors will get much marketing support even if they are able to get their print books into the stores.

But sales do slowly trickle in, and with POD the book never goes out of print.  I’m not sure of the stats (and I wouldn’t trust the numbers if I saw them), but there’s still a large part of the market that refuses to read eBooks.  You’re shutting yourself off from those people if you don’t set up a Print edition.

Still, your print books won’t sell like your eBooks.  In fact, maybe they barely sell at all — my print sales amount to about 1% of my publishing income.  Now, I haven’t done everything I could to sell my books (I haven’t even done everything I’ve told you can be done to sell books), but I doubt that I could make my print sales match my ebook sales when my best efforts would only grant me regional bookstore distribution.  I might get sales compareable with your average small press, at best.  That rarely matches (in the number of sales, at least) what you can make with eBooks.

You can boost your print sales, to a degree, by hand-selling (a term that means selling your books in-person) or selling signed copies direct from your website.  The return per book sale is better than the sale through any other store (including Amazon, even, if you can keep your shipping costs down), and I have known a few authors who pay their convention expenses by hand-selling their books at an authors table or in the dealer’s room.

Keep in mind, though, that when hand-selling, you change the model of business you’re in as a writer.  Selling your books exclusively through retailers is different from hand-selling your books in a legal way.  If you only sell books through a retailer, probably (check your local laws; I’m not a lawyer and cannot give legal advice) the worst you need to worry about on the business end (tax wise) is filing your taxes quarterly.

But if you start hand-selling your book, you open yourself up to more red tape.  You are no longer just a supplier, you have become a retailer of books.  This changes a lot of things — for example, you have to account for sales taxes, yourself.  Again, check your local laws, but in most cases you will need to fill out forms outside of whatever forms your locality requires to establish a self-publishing business in order to deal with retail sales.

In my case, if I were to fill out that form (I did have one prepared through Legalzoom, but decided to hold off on going this route… for now), I would need to make monthly sales reports and pay a small monthly fee.  I would also have to keep a closer track of the sales I made (a lot of things which are automated on Amazon or similar retailers you need to do, yourself).

You have to decide if it’s worth the effort — in my case, I figure I don’t have enough titles, yet, nor are my print sales strong enough, to justify the added expenses in accounting time and money.

Note:  Should I decide to sell direct from my website, I’ll probably do it under the auspices of my mother’s quilting business — signing her to a contract that would make her a “distributor” for my books — as she recently set herself up with all of these forms and monthly accounting statements so she can add a storefront (coming soon) for her quilting business.  It just makes sense, as I’ll probably be acting as her publisher for a book on quilting that she’s writing, as well.  But the way things are set up I would only be able to do business on the web or in Virginia; if I were attending a convention just barely across the state line, in DC or Maryland, I would need to file a different set of tax documents for those two locations.

Just something to keep in mind.  I assume most people who are reading this series have at least looked into the very basics of self-publishing, but I don’t expect you to necessarily have looked into this sort of issue, so I’m covering more of the basics than usual.


So, there’s no question that print books can be complicated.  You can set yourself up with old-style print runs through difficult-to-interact with printers, warehouse said books once they’re printed, market your books to bookstores, market them to readers, and set yourself up as a retailer which requires accounting for sales tax, etc.

On the other hand, you can go through Createspace and treat it just like you do KDP, Nook, and any other ebook store… just with a little more set-up in the book design phase.  You won’t sell as well, but you’ll open up some time to work on your next book and the print version will be there for those people who refuse to buy an e-book.

It’s all about trade-offs, in this business.  Put it more time and effort and you can sell more books… though perhaps not enough to justify that time and effort.  But if you are asking whether you should make a print edition at all?

Well, why not?